The waves are oscillating movements in the ocean water which transfer energy from place to place. They are caused by friction of wind on the surface of water or any other disturbances’ on the sea bottom.
1. Crest: The upper or highest part of a wave is called the crest. (Figure 5.16)
2. Trough: The lowest part of a wave is called the trough.
3. Wave height: The vertical distance between the crest and the trough is known as wave height.
4. Wave length: The horizontal distance between two crests or two troughs is known as wave length.
5. Wave amplitude: Wave amplitude is one-half of the wave height.
6. Fetch: The distance of open water across which the wind can blow without interruption is called fetch.
7. Frequency: The number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point per unit of time is frequency. Example, 100 waves per sec per cm.
8. Period: The time taken by one wavelength to pass a fixed point is known as period.
9. Velocity: Refers to speed and direction.
10. Steepness: Steepness of the wave is equal to the height divided by length.(H/L)