Tools and Techniques in Biotechnology
The fundamental unit of cell, genetic material, decides the type of cell and its behavior. The study with reference to nucleic acid, expression pattern of genes, proteins and other final products, formation of metabolites and their types gives a reflection about the cell and its function. Advancement in biotechnological methods has made these studies approachable and applicable. Since, biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, system or processes to manufacturing and service industries related to animals, plants, microbes and environment, here we are exploring the diverse tools and techniques involved in genomics, transcriptomic and proteomics. The genomic approaches facilitate to study the genetic material, locate the position of genes, chromosome paintings and hybridization techniques. The expression pattern of these genes studied by RNA isolation, qRT PCR, differential display techniques and recent methods like SAGE, MPSS and RNA sequencing provide in depth study of gene expression. Additionally, protein studies like SDS-PAGE, 2D gel electrophoresis are described in this chapter.
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