DIRECT GENE TRANSFORMATION
Introduction of DNA molecule into the cells by means of chemical and physical methods is called as direct gene transformation. The naked DNA molecule cloned or un-cloned is directly used for delivering into the cells. The varies methods of direct gene transformation are 1) chemical 2) biolistic transformation 3) electrophoresis 4) lipoprotein 5) microinjection 6) laser induced and 7) fiber mediated gene transfer methods are in use.
The probe preparation includes two major aspects 1) template preparation and 2) labeling the probe. The template may be of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe, single stranded (ssDNA) probe, RNA probe (riboprobes) and synthetic oligonucleotides. These probes are labeled with radioactive molecule (32P, 35S and 3H or non-radioactive molecule (biotin, digoxigenin and fluorescent dye).