Techniques of Biotechnology and Innovations
The techniques used in modern biotechnology will be briefly highlighted in this section. A basic knowledge of their fundamental principles and applications is important for understanding the way biotechnology is used to benefit life. The techniques used in modern biotechnology can be divided into three major categories: genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Genomics is described as the study or use of genes and their functions. It involves techniques that investigate or make use of DNA. Proteomics is the study or use of the structure and function of proteins. It includes the various ways that proteins work individually and interact with each other inside cells. Metabolomics is the study or use of specific cellular processes carried out inside and outside of a cell. It includes the interaction of the cell with other cells (physionomics) and with environmental factors (environomics). Biotechnology techniques can also be classified into categories that analyze or apply the genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Analytical methods are used to analyze the function and structure of DNA, proteins, or metabolic pathways. These techniques today rely in laboratory instruments that detect the activity and chemical configuration of biological molecules. It was founded on the science of analytical chemistry, which is the analysis of chemical samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Application methods vary greatly and involve specific techniques for each category of biotechnology. Genomics applications require the modification of DNA. Procedures that control the functions or alter the structures of biological molecules are used in applications of proteomics and metabolomics. The manipulation of an organism’s genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics is one of the fastest growing areas of biotechnology. New techniques are being developed every year for a variety of applications ranging from agriculture to pharmaceutical production.