TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEINS (TVP)
Soyabeans are specially processed to resemble meat. They are textured,
shaped, coloured and flavoured to look like meat. The TVP forms a cheaper
substitute for fleshy foods. They blend well with meat and mince preparations
and are cost effective. TVP is a boon for an average householder for it
combines quality with economy.
Cutlets, kabab, stew, nugget curry, soya granule mince pie are some
popular preparations made with TVP.
It is the process in which small new shoots come out of pulses or
cereals under certain controlled conditions thereby improving their nutrient
to be germinated/ sprouted is cleaned, washed and soaked in an equal amount of
water over night. In the morning it will be noticed that most of the water is
absorbed and the grains are swollen in size and are softer in texture. The
grains are now tied up in a wet muslin cloth and put in an airy place having
sufficient amount of defused sunlight for another eight to ten hours. New
shoots will appear. Some times the shoots grow up to 1 cm in size. The shoots
may take longer to appear when the atmospheric temperature is low. They now
have a new vitality and can be incorporated in different dishes.
The shoots that have recently sprouted are very
rich in vitamin C that was totally lacking in the dry cereals and pulses.
Niacin content increases by 60-100% in 48-72 hours, while thiamine content
remains almost the same as in dry seed. Iron (which is generally found in bond
form and not easily available) gets loosened and becomes easily available to
It is a process in which the naturally present micro-organisms are
allowed to bring about desirable physical and chemical changes by converting
them into simpler and better forms having increased nutrient availability.
The conversion of milk to curd is brought about by adding a little 'starter'
(curd) to warm milk. The slightly sour taste brought about by the microbial
activity of lactobacilli, that converts the milk lactose into lactic acid.
Rice and dal are fermented to make idli, dosa
and adais. Refined flour is fermented with yeast or curds to make bhaturas,
naan and bread. Dhokla is made by fermenting channa dal.
As the fermentation proceeds the mixture becomes more porous, bubbly and
sour. Fermentation should be controlled upto the desirable state. The
production of carbon dioxide makes the mixture spongy and light. Fermented food
is easy to digest and add variety in texture and flavour.
The fermentation brings about an increase in ascorbic acid content.
Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents are doubled. There is increase in folic
acid and methionine contents. Iron is released from its bond forms and is thus