Maths: Sampling Techniques and Statistical Inference: Summary

**Summary**

·
**Sampling:**** **It is the procedure or process of
selecting a sample from a population.

·
**Population:**** **The group of individuals considered
under study is called as** **population.

·
**Sample :**Aselection of a group of individuals
from a population.

·
**Sample size :**The number of individuals included in a
sample.

·
**Simple Random Sampling :**The samples are
selected in such a way that each** **and every unit in the population has an
equal and independent chance of being selected as a sample.

·
**Stratified Random Sampling:**** **When the population is heterogeneous, the** **population is divided into homogeneous number of sub-groups or
strata. A sample is drawn from each stratum at random.

·
**Systematic Sampling:**** **Select the first sample at random, the rest being** **automatically selected according to some predetermined pattern.

·
**Sampling Distribution:**** **Sampling distribution of a statistic is the frequency** **distribution which is formed with various values of a statistic
computed from different samples of the same size drawn from the same
population.

·
**Standard Error:**** **The standard deviation of the sampling
distribution of a statistic** **is known as its Standard Error.

·
**Statistical Inference:**** **To draw inference about a population of any statistical** **investigation from the analysis of samples drawn from that
population.

·
**Estimation :**The method of obtaining the most likely
value of the population** **parameter using statistic is called
estimation.

·
**Point Estimation:**** **When a single value is used as an
estimate, it is called as point** **estimation.

·
**Interval Estimation:**** **An interval within which the parameter would be expected** **to lie is called interval estimation.

·
**Test of Statistical Hypothesis:**** **Statistical technique to arrive at a decision in** **certain situations where there is an element of uncertainty on the
basis of sampl

·
**Null
Hypothesis:** The hypothesis which is tested for
possible rejection under the assumption that it is true”, denoted by H_{0}.

·
**Alternative
Hypothesis:**The hypothesis which is complementary to
the null hypothesis is called as the
alternative hypothesis, denoted by H_{1} .

·
**Type
I error:** The error of rejecting H0 when it is true.

·
**Type
II error:** The error of accepting H0 when it is false.

·
**Test
of significance for single mean:**

Tags : Sampling Techniques and Statistical Inference , 12th Business Maths and Statistics : Chapter 8 : Sampling Techniques and Statistical Inference

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12th Business Maths and Statistics : Chapter 8 : Sampling Techniques and Statistical Inference : Summary | Sampling Techniques and Statistical Inference

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