The errors involved in the collection, processing and analysis of the data may be broadly classified into two categories namely,

**Sampling
and Non-Sampling Errors:**

A sample is a part of
the whole population. A sample drawn from the population depends upon chance
and as such all the characteristics of the population may not be present in the
sample drawn from the same population. The errors involved in the collection,
processing and analysis of the data may be broadly classified into two
categories namely,

(i) Sampling Errors

(ii) Non-Sampling Errors

**(i) Sampling Errors**

Errors, which arise in
the normal course of investigation or enumeration on account of chance, are
called sampling errors. Sampling errors are inherent in the method of sampling.
They may arise accidentally without any bias or prejudice. Sampling Errors
arise primarily due to the following reasons:

(a) Faulty selection of
the sample instead of correct sample by defective sampling technique.

(b) The investigator
substitutes a convenient sample if the original sample is not available while
investigation.

(c) In area surveys,
while dealing with border lines it depends upon the investigator whether to
include them in the sample or not. This is known as Faulty demarcation of
sampling units.

**(ii) Non-Sampling Errors**

The errors that arise
due to human factors which always vary from one investigator to another in
selecting, estimating or using measuring instruments( tape, scale)are called
Non-Sampling errors.It may arise in the following ways:

(a) Due to negligence
and carelessness of the part of either investigator or respondents.

(b) Due to lack of
trained and qualified investigators.

(c) Due to framing of a
wrong questionnaire.

(d) Due to apply wrong
statistical measure

(e) Due to incomplete
investigation and sample survey.

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail

12th Business Maths and Statistics : Chapter 8 : Sampling Techniques and Statistical Inference : Sampling and Non-Sampling Errors |

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