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In human, the pineal gland or epiphysis cerebri or conarium is located behind the third ventricle of brain and is formed of parenchymal cells and interstitial cells. It secretes the hormone, melatonin, which plays a central role in the regulation of circadian rhythm of our body and maintains the normal sleep wake cycle. It also regulates the timing of sexual maturation of gonads. In addition melatonin also influences metabolism, pigmentation, menstrual cycle and defence mechanism of our body.
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