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Testis: A pair of testis is present in the scrotal sac of males. The testis functions as a sex organ and also as an endocrine gland. The testis is composed of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells or Leydig cells. The Leydig cells secrete several male sex hormones, collectively called androgens, mainly testosterone.
Functions of testosterone: Under the influence of FSH and LH, testosterone initiates maturation of male reproductive organs, and the appearance of secondary sexual characters, muscular growth, growth of facial and axillary hair, masculine voice and male sexual behaviour. It enhances the total bone matrix and plays a stimulating role in the process of spermatogenesis.
Ovary: Females have a pair of ovaries located in the pelvic region of the abdomen. The ovary is composed of ovarian
follicles and stromal tissues. It produces the eggs or ova. The ovaries secrete
the steroid hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Oestrogen is responsible for the maturation of reproductive organs
and the development of secondary sexual characters at puberty. Along with
progesterone, oestrogens promotes breast development and initiate the cyclic
changes during menstrual cycle. Progesterone
prepares the uterus for
implantation of the fertilized ovum. It
decreases the uterine contraction during pregnancy and stimulates the
development of mammary glands and milk secretion. It is responsible for
premenstrual changes in the uterus and is essential for the formation of
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