Chapter: Environmental Science and Engineering

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Non-Reneable Energy Sources

1 Coal 2 Petroleum 3 LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) 4 Natural Gas

NON-RENEABLE ENERGY SOURCES

1 Coal

 

Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed in several stages as buried remains of land plants that lived 300-400 million years ago were subjected to intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

 

Various stages of coal


3. The carbon content of Anthracite is 90% and its calorific value is 8700 k.cal.

2. The carbon content of bituminous, lignite and peat are 80, 70 and 60% respectively

3. India has about 5% of world’s coal. Indian coal is not good because of poor heat capacity.

 

Disadvantages

3. When coal is burnt it produces CO2 causes global warming

2. Since coal contains impurities like S and N, it produces toxic gases during burning.

 

2 Petroleum

Petroleum or crude oil = hydrocarbons +small amount S, O, N.

 

Occurrence

 

The fossil fuel formed by the decomposition of dead animals and plants that were buried under lake and ocean at high temperature and pressure for million years

 

Fractional distillation

Hydrocarbons are separated by fractioning the crude oil.

 

Petroleum World Scenario

3. 67% oil reserves.

 

 

2. 25% of the oil reserves in Saudi Arabia.

 

At the present rate of usage, the world’s crude oil reserves are expected to get exhausted in just 40 years.

 

 

3 LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)

1. The petroleum gas, converted into liquid under high pressure as LPG

 

2.   LPG is colorless and odorless gas.

3. During bottling some mercaptans is added, to detect leakage of LPG from the cylinder.

 

4 Natural Gas

3. Mixture of 50-90% methane and small amount of other hydrocarbons.

2. Its calorific value ranges from 12,000-14,000 k-cal/m3.


(i)Dry gas

If the natural gas contains lower hydrocarbons like methane and ethane, it is called dry gas.

 

(ii)Wet gas

 

If the natural gas contains higher hydrocarbons like propane, butane along with methane it is called wet gas.

 

Occurrence

 

Formed by the decomposition of dead animals and plants, those were buried under lake and ocean, at high temperature and pressure for millions of years.


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