Chapter: Environmental Science and Engineering

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Management of solid waste

Management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the adverse effects of solid wastes.


SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


Management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the adverse effects of solid wastes.

 

1 Types of solid wastes

 

1. Urban wastes Sources

 

ü   Domestic wastes – Food waste, Cloth, Waste paper.

 

ü   Commercial wastes – Packing material, cans, bottles, polythene.

 

ü   Construction Wastes – Wood, concrete debris.

 

ü   Bio medical wastes – Anatomical wastes, infectious wastes.

 

2. Industrial wastes

Sources

ü   Nuclear power plants – generates radioactive wastes

 

ü   Thermal power plants – produces fly ash in large quantities

 

2. Chemical industries

Produces large quantities of hazardous and toxic materials

 

2 Steps involved in solid waste management

 

ü   Reduce, Reuse and Recycle of materials – raw materials re usage should be reduced, reuse of waste materials should be reduced and recycling of the discarded materials into new useful products should also be reduced.

 

ü   Discarding wastes

 

ü   Land fill: Solid wastes are placed in sanitary landfill system in alternate layers of 80 cm thick refuse, covered with selected earth fill of 20cm thickness

 

ü   Incineration: It is a hygienic way of disposing the solid waste. It is a thermal process and is very effective for detoxification of all combustible pathogens

 

 

 

ü   Composting: It is another popular method practiced in many cities in our country. In this method, bulk organic waste is converted into fertilizing manure by biological action.

 

3 Role of an individual in prevention of pollution

·        Plant more trees

·        Help more in pollution prevention than pollution control

 

·        Use water, energy and other resources efficiently

·        Purchase recyclable, recycled and environmentally safe products

·        Reduce deforestation

·        Remove NO from motor vehicular exhaust

·        Use of eco friendly products.

 

4 Case studies

Ø   Effluents treatment at MRL, Chennai

 

Ø   The Bhopal gas tragedy

 

Ø   Arsenic pollution in ground water

 

Ø   Soft drink bottling unit

 

Ø   Mercury wastes

 

Ø   Palar river pollution

 

Ø   The miniamatta epidemic (marine pollution)

 

 

 

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