SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the adverse effects of solid wastes.
1 Types of solid wastes
1. Urban wastes Sources
ü Domestic wastes – Food waste, Cloth, Waste paper.
ü Commercial wastes – Packing material, cans, bottles, polythene.
ü Construction Wastes – Wood, concrete debris.
ü Bio medical wastes – Anatomical wastes, infectious wastes.
2. Industrial wastes
ü Nuclear power plants – generates radioactive wastes
ü Thermal power plants – produces fly ash in large quantities
2. Chemical industries
Produces large quantities of hazardous and toxic materials
2 Steps involved in solid waste management
ü Reduce, Reuse and Recycle of materials – raw materials re usage should be reduced, reuse of waste materials should be reduced and recycling of the discarded materials into new useful products should also be reduced.
ü Discarding wastes
ü Land fill: Solid wastes are placed in sanitary landfill system in alternate layers of 80 cm thick refuse, covered with selected earth fill of 20cm thickness
ü Incineration: It is a hygienic way of disposing the solid waste. It is a thermal process and is very effective for detoxification of all combustible pathogens
ü Composting: It is another popular method practiced in many cities in our country. In this method, bulk organic waste is converted into fertilizing manure by biological action.
3 Role of an individual in prevention of pollution
· Plant more trees
· Help more in pollution prevention than pollution control
· Use water, energy and other resources efficiently
· Purchase recyclable, recycled and environmentally safe products
· Reduce deforestation
· Remove NO from motor vehicular exhaust
· Use of eco friendly products.
4 Case studies
Ø Effluents treatment at MRL, Chennai
Ø The Bhopal gas tragedy
Ø Arsenic pollution in ground water
Ø Soft drink bottling unit
Ø Mercury wastes
Ø Palar river pollution
Ø The miniamatta epidemic (marine pollution)