Environment, Ecosystems and Biodiversity
1. State the significance and scope of
· By environmental studies, people will understand the concept of need of
development without destruction of environment.
· To motivate the active participation in environmental protection and
improvement.. · Environmental studies develop a
concern and respect for the environment.
2. Give some important physical hazards and their
· Physical hazards are the
substance (or) activities that threaten your physical safety.
· They will be present in most work places at one time or another; they
can be detected through your senses of touch or sight.
3. Define environment and ecosystem.
Environment: It is defined as the sum of
total of all the living and non-living things around us influencing one another.
Ecosystem: A group of organisms
interacting among themselves and with environment for exchanging energy and matter is known as ecosystem.
4. Differentiate between a biome and an ecosystem.
A small ecosystem with in an ecosystem is
called as biome.
A group of organisms interacting among
themselves and with the environment for exchanging energy and matter is known
5. Mention the abiotic components.
non-living components of an ecosystem called abiotic components.
climate, soil, water, air, energy, nutrients, etc.
6. Define primary and secondary production.
Primary production: The
primary function of all ecosystems is to absorb sunlight and manufacture of starch.
Secondary production: The
secondary function of all ecosystems is distributing energy in the form of food to all consumers or the energy
stored by the consumer.
7. What is the major significance of biodiversity?
· We depend
on plants, micro-organisms, earth's animals for our food, medicine and
protects the fresh air, clean water and productive land.
8. What is ecological succession?
progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of
stable community in a particular area is called as ecological succession.
9. Define species diversity?
diversity is the diversity between different species. The sum of varieties of
all the living organisms at the species level is known as species diversity.
10.India as Mega diversity nation – Account.
one among the 12mega-diversity countries in the world. It has 89,450 animal
species accounting for 7.31% of the global faunal species and 47,000 plant
species which accounts for 10.8% of the world floral species. The loss of
biodiversity is about 33%.
11.Differentiate food chain and food web with
: A food chain is a picture or model that shows the flow of energy from
Autotrophs to a series of organisms in an environment. A food chain only
follows just one path as animals find food.eg: A hawk eats a snake, which has
eaten a frog, which has eaten a grasshopper, which has eaten grass.
: A food web is several food chains connected together. A food web shows the
many different paths plants and animals are connected. eg: A hawk might also
eat a mouse, a squirrel, afrog or some other animal. The snake may eat a
beetle, a caterpillar, or some other animal.And so on for all the other animals
in the food chain..
12. Define Ecological succession.
succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of
an ecological community over time. Within any community some species may become
less abundant over some time interval, or they may even vanish from the
ecosystem altogether. Similarly, over
some time interval, other species
within the community may become more abundant, or new species may even invade into the community from
adjacent ecosystems. This observed change over time in what is living in a
particular ecosystem is "ecological succession".
13. What are the threats to the Indian
to Indian biodiversity- deforestation, destruction of wetlands, habitat
fragmentation, raw material, production of drugs, illegal trade and
14. What do you understand by endangered species
and endemic species?
and endemic species – Endemic - species which are found only in a particular
region. species is said to be threatened or endangered when its number has been
reduced to a critical level. Unless it is protected and conserved it is in
immediate danger of extinction.
15. Explain threatened and endangered species.
and endangered species. –species is said to be threatened or endangered when
its number has been reduced to a critical level. Unless it is protected and
conserved it is in immediate danger of extinction.