MAN – WILDLIFE CONFLICTS
v The conflict between man and wildlife started with the evolution of man, but intensity increased due to the activities of modern man
v Due to the lack of stable food and disruption of movement, wild animals came out of forest area and attack the agricultural field and humans and in turn got killed by the humans.
1 Introduction of Exotic species
v Organisms introduced into habitats where they are not native are termed as exotics.
v They can be thought of as Biological Pollutants and are considered to be among the most damaging agents of habitat alteration and degradation the world.
2 Climate change
A changing global climate threatens species and ecosystems.
v The distribution of species (biogeography) is largely determined by climate.
v Climate change may simply shift these distributions but, for a number of reasons, plants and animals may not be able to adjust.
v According to The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the species that considered in imminent danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely, if factors causing their decline continue to operate.
v Out of about 47,000 species of plants in our country, 7000 are endemic
v India contains 172 species of animals considered globally threatened by IUCN, or 2.9% of the world’s total number of threatened species.
v These include 53 species of mammals, 69 birds, 23 reptiles and 3 amphibians
v As many as 3,000- 4,000 higher plants may be under high degree of threat in India
v Thus Indian subcontinent has about 62% endemic flora, restricted mainly to Himalayas, khasi Hills & Western Ghats.
v Sapria himalayana, Uvaria lurida, Napenthes khasians etc. are some endemic flora of our country.
v A large number out of a total of 81,000 species of animals in our country is endemic. About 62% amphibians and 50% lizards are endemic to western Ghats.
v Golden monkey, Niligiri Langur, Indian Wolf, Red Fox, Himalayan Brown Bear, Great Indian One Horned Rhinoceros, White Winged Wood Duck, Black Necked Crane, Indian Pea Fowl, Gharial, Indian egg eating Snake, Indian Salamandar etc. are some examples of endemic animal species of India.