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Concept, Structure, Components of Ecosystem

Concept, Structure, Components of Ecosystem
Ecology: Study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the flows of energy and materials between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems.

CONCEPT OF ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM

 

Ecology

 

Study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the flows of energy and materials between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems.

 

Ecosystem

 

The living things in a given area, non-living chemical and physical factors of their environment, linked together through nutrient cycle and energy flow.



 

 

STRUCTURE OR COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM

 

1 Ecosystem Structure

 

The living components of an ecosystem

 

  The roles of organisms in an ecosystem:

      Producer (autotrophy):  make food; plants, algae

 

      Consumer (heterotrophy): eat other organisms

 

      Decomposer:  eat dead organic matter; bacteria and fungi

 

2 Classes of Consumers

 

Herbivore – primary consumer – eats plants Carnivores – secondary – meat eaters; eat herbivores Tertiary – feed on carnivores

 

Omnivores – eat plants/animals.

 

3 Role of Organisms

 

Scavengers feed on dead organisms (vultures, flies, crows, lobsters)

 

Detritus feeders organisms that extract nutrients from fragments of dead organisms into more simple organic waste (termites, earthworms, crabs)

 

Decomposers organisms that digest parts of the dead organisms into simplest chemicals (bacteria, fungi)


 




Ø    Environment is derived from the French word Environ which means to encircle or surround.

 

Ø    Environment is sum total of water, air, and land, inter-relationships among themselves and also with the human beings, other living organisms and property. The above definition given in Environment Act, 1986 clearly indicates that environment includes all the physical and biological surroundings and their interactions.


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