Kinds of child birth
In a natural birth, the position of the fetus and its size in relation to the mother's reproductive organs allow it to emerge in the normal, head first position.
In a breech birth, the buttocks appear first, followed by the legs and finally the head.
In a transverse presentation, the fetus is positioned crosswise in the mother's uterus. Instruments must be used for delivery unless the position can be changed before the birth process begins.
When the fetus is too large to emerge spontaneously or when its position makes normal birth impossible, instruments must be used to aid delivery.
If x-rays taken during the latter part of pregnancy indicate that complications may result if the infant emerges through the birth canal, the baby is brought into the world through a slit made surgically in the mother's abdominal wall.
Infants differ greatly in appearance and physiological functions at birth and in their early adjustments after birth.
At birth the average infant weighs 3 to 3.5 kg and measures 19-20 inches in length. Weight in relation to height is less at birth. The muscles of the newborn are soft, small and uncontrolled. Bones are also soft & flexible. Skin is soft. The flesh is firm and elastic. Eyes change from bluish grey to their permanent colour. The new born is not a miniature adult.
The head is approximately one - fourth of the body length. The cranial region, the area over the eyes is much larger while the chin is much too small. The nose is small and flat. The neck is short, almost invisible.
The shoulders are narrow, while the abdomen is large and bulging. Hands and feet are miniature. With the birth cry, the lungs are inflated and respiration begins. Neonatal heart beat is more rapid. Hunger demands are irregular. Elimination of waste products begin a few hours after birth.