1. Distinguish Renewable and Non-renewable energy sources.
Renewable energy sources
Resources capable of being regenerated within a reasonable time period.
Example: Solar energy, wind energy.
Non-renewable energy sources
Resources not capable of being regenerated by ecological processes.
Example: Coal, petroleum.
2. Write the effects of timber extraction on forest & tribal people.
· Large scale timber extraction causes deforestation.
· It also leads to loss of tribal culture and extinction of tribal people. · Timber extraction reduces thickness of the forest.
3. Mention the major environmental impacts of mining?
· Mining reduces the shape and size of the forest areas.
· Pollution of surface and ground water resources due to the discharge of waste minerals in water.
4. Explain overgrazing.
Overgrazing-A process of eating away of forests without giving it a chance to regenerate.
5. State the reasons of over exploitation of forests.
1. Shifting of Cultivation – 300 million people – 5 lakh hectares of forest for slash and burn culture
2. Fuel requirement
3. Raw materials for industrial use
4. Developmental projects
5. Growing food needs
7. Forest fires
6. Write the ways of drought management.
· Selecting appropriate crop or plantation depending upon the climate, soil type .
7. Mention the major environmental impacts of Mining.
Impacts of Mining are: Soil erosion, Contamination of soil, Loss of biodiversity, Formation of sinkholes.
8. What are the changes caused due to overgrazing?
Overgrazing leads to loss of biodiversity, loss of minerals, Soil erosion, leads to desertification.
9. What are the harmful effects of land degradation?
Harmful effects of land degradation. – Soil structure and texture are deteriorated, loss of soil fertility due to loss of valuable nutrients, increase in water logging, salinity, alkalinity, acidity problems.
10. What are Mineral Resources? Give its types.
Mineral resources are natural occurring substances having definite chemical composition and physical properties.
Types: Identified resources, undiscovered resources, reserves.
11. What is eutrophication?
A large proportion of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers used in crop fields is washed off by the runoff water and reaches the water bodies causing over nourishment of the lakes. The process of accumulation of nutrients in the water bodies is known as eutrophication.
12. Define Water logging. Write its consequences?
Water logging is the land where water stand for most of the year. During water-logged conditions, pore-voids in the soil get filled with water and the soil air gets depleted. In such a condition the roots of the plants do not get adequate air for respiration. So mechanical strength of the soil decreases and crop yield falls.
13. What is land degradation? What are the causes of land degradation?
Land degradation is the process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of the soil. Causes: Increase in population, fertilizers& water logging.
14. What is desertification? Give any two reasons for it?
Desertification is a progressive destruction or degradation of arid or semiarid lands to desert. Desertification is characterized by DE vegetation, depletion of ground water, salination and soil erosion.
15. What is the role of an individual in conservation of natural resources?
Role of individual in the conservation of natural resources. – duty of every individual to conserve natural resource in such a way that it is available for future generations also. Due to advancement I technology and population growth, the present world is facing lot of problems on degradation of natural resource.
16. What is environmental biochemistry?
Environmental biochemistry involves approaches to treat polluted air, waste water and solid waste using metabolic activities of micro- organisms.
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