VALUES, GOALS AND STANDARDS
Management plays an important role in shaping our lives. It enables to
recognise the values, the allocation of resources to attain the family goals so
as to enhance the standard of life.
Goals, values and standards are closely related concepts. Value is the base and from values stem
the other two concepts - goals and standards. Values are important to the individual but vague to express in operational terms. The concept of
goal is more specific. It signifies something definite towards which one works.
A standard is defined as something used as a basis.
Value indicates the worth that is attached to any object, condition,
principle or idea. Value is the capacity of something or somebody to satisfy
the human desire. These are the ways behind our actions and the basis for
All values are human. They are created, evaluated and enjoyed by
persons. A value is always important to the person who holds it. It is
desirable and satisfying. It has the ability to develop in self-creative way.
It is relatively stable but tends to change gradually.
intensity of values vary from individual to individual. Values help an
individual to direct his effort more intelligently in seeking satisfactions.
Values are of two types - Intrinsic and Instrumental. An intrinsic value is one
that is important and desirable for its own sake. e.g. art. The interest
in beauty is an intrinsic value. An instrumental value is the means to
attain other values, e.g. Efficiency in work. Some values possess both
intrinsic and instrumental worth. The human values - love, affection, health;
comfort, ambition, knowledge, wisdom, play, art and religion have both
intrinsic and instrumental values.
The major values classified by Parker are
Love: It is the interest in relationship with people in its broad sense and its various forms are
expressed as sex love, parental love, friendship and community love.
Health: It is the interest in physical and mental well-being.
Comfort: It is the interest in making life as pleasant and agreeable as possible.
Ambition: It is the interest or desire for success in life for a victorious achievement.
and wisdom: It is the interest in truth and its use in all activities in living.
interest or efficiency in work: It is the
interest in the efficient making and
using of things.
Play: It is the interest in beauty in all forms of expression.
Religion: It is the interest in goodness and rightness in unifying all aims and purposes in living.
grow out of human desire and interest. Values differ in cultures. The family
has the major responsibility for fostering values among the members.
Goals are value based objectives. The goals grow out of desires, past
experiences and environment. Goals are the ends that any individual or family
is willing to work for. The family's goal will help in shaping the family's
life pattern and setting standards.
The formulation and attainment of individual and family goals require
the knowledge, judgment and understanding the ways of using family resources.
Goals should be definite and attainable. Goal-setting is a continuous process.
Many goals are immediately attainable. One goal stems from another and leads to
Goals can be for short term, mid term or long-term. The short-term goals
are the initial goals, which leads to the final long-term goals. The major
goals that are created by the family grow out of its own environment and
The major goals of home making are
Providing optimum physical and mental health for
the members of the family.
Facilitating for optimum development of the
individual members of the family.
Satisfying family relationships.
Recognition, acceptance and appreciation of
Establishing satisfactory relationship with the
community and other subsystems of the society.
is defined as scale or parameter used for comparison. Standards are more
specific than values or goals. Standards are related to specific materials. It
is influenced by external factors.
are set limits one will accept in working toward a goal. Standards are mental
pictures of what is considered essential and necessary to make life satisfying.
If achieved, leads to satisfaction, if not achieved leads to uncomfortable
situation. Standards remain as part of one's pattern of living and habit.
Standards vary according to the values of the
family or group. On this basis they can be classified as conventional standards
and flexible standards.
Conventional Standards are fixed
and arise from the values of social acceptance. In this people
change to meet the standards. Conventional standards are traditional and are
accepted by the community or by a social group within it. They are fixed at a
given time and liable to change when condition change.
Flexible standards are developed and changed according to the individual's demand.
They change to suit the human situation. But they are not widely accepted by
Standard of living is the combination of many specific standards. It
consists of a pattern of commodities, services and satisfactions which a person
thinks essential for happy living. According to Hazel Kyrk, 'standard
of living is made up of the essential values to be sought. It is an
attitude towards a way of regarding or of judging, a given mode of life'. Standard
of living determines the character of the real income of the family. The
standard of living of a family encompasses not only the actual qualities and
quantities of goods and services but also the ways of using these goods and