This condition affects mostly children and young adults. Streptococcal infections causes inflammation of the glomeruli. The symptoms are haematuria (blood in the urine), proteinuria (protein in the urine), oedema, shortness of breath, anorexia, tachycardia (increased heart beat), decreased urine output and elevated blood pressure. The dietary management include:
1. High calories - 2000K calories
2. Low protein because the kidney cannot excrete the waste products of protein metabolism like urea and uric acid
3. Restricted fluid
4. Restricted sodium
5. Restricted potassium
Foods Included: Rice, sago, ash-gourd and sugar.
Foods Avoided: Salt, pickles, nuts, jaggery, pulses and meat.
This can be caused due to progressive nephritis, diabetes mellitus and toxins. The symptoms include proteinuria (protein in the urine), hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin levels), oedema and increased serumcholesterol. High carbohydrate, restricted protein, moderate fat, restricted fluid and restricted sodium diet is recommended for a nephrotic patient. Vitamin supplements especially vitamin C should be given.
iii. Kidney Stones (Urolithiasis)
Urinary calculi or kidney stones are usually found to be lodged in the urinary tract, namely kidney, ureters, bladder or urethra. The causative factors are warm climate, occupation, urinary tract infection, heredity and hyperthyroidism. The majority of stones are made up of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, uric acid or magnesium ammonium phosphate. The diet should provide adequate fluids and restrict foods rich in calcium, oxalate and uric acid.