Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that prevents the body to utilize glucose completely or partially due to the deficiency in the secretion of insulin. The predisposing factor of diabetes mellitus are mainly heredity and stress. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus are
1. Increased thirst (polydypsia)
2. Increased urination (polyuria)
3. Increased hunger (polyphagia)
4. Weight loss
5. Glycosuria (sugar in the urine)
6. Hyper glycemia (increased blood sugar level)
7. Skin irritation or infection
8. Weakness, loss of strength.
9. Delayed wound healing.
10. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
A blood sugar level between 80-120 mg per 100 ml is considered to be normal.
1. Simple Carbohydrates like sugar and honey are avoided.
2. The diet should provide high fibre. Salads should be included in every meal.
3. Whole grams and sprouted grams should be included in the diet
4. Wheat is preferred to rice because it is high in fibre and reduces the rate at which glucose is absorbed in the blood.
5. Poly unsaturated fatty acids are included in the diet.
6. High protein intake helps to increase insulin production and promote satiety.
7. Three main meals and three in between meal snacks are taken.
8. Patient should avoid fasting and feasting.
9. Vitamins and minerals are supplemented to meet daily requirements.
10. Low fat diet is preferred to prevent atherosclerosis.
Foods to be Avoided: Simple sugars, honey, sweets, dried fruits, cake, fried foods, alcohol, nuts and sweetened juices.
Foods to be Restricted: Fats, cereals, meat and egg.
Foods to be Included: Green leafy vegetables, fruits except banana, coffee or tea, skimmed milk, butter milk, salads and lemon.