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# Classification and Types of DC Motor

1. Shunt Wound 2. Series Wound 3. Compound wound - DC motors are more common than we may think. A car may have as many as 20 DC motors to drive fans, seats, and windows. They come in three different types, classified according to the electrical circuit used.

CLASSIFICATION OF DC MOTOR

DC motors are more common than we may think. A car may have as many as 20 DC motors to drive fans, seats, and windows. They come in three different types, classified according to the electrical circuit used. In the shunt motor, the armature and field windings are connected in parallel, and so the currents through each are relatively independent. The current through the field winding can be controlled with a field rheostat (variable resistor), thus allowing a wide variation in the motor speed over a large range of load conditions. This type of motor is used for driving machine tools or fans, which require a wide range of speeds.

In the series motor, the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding, resulting in a very high starting torque since both the armature current and field strength run at their maximum. However, once the armature starts to rotate, the counter EMF reduces the current in the circuit, thus reducing the field strength. The series motor is used where a large starting torque is required, such as in automobile starter motors, cranes, and hoists.

The compound motor is a combination of the series and shunt motors, having parallel and series field windings. This type of motor has a high starting torque and the ability to vary the speed and is used in situations requiring both these properties such as punch presses, conveyors and elevators.

DC MOTOR TYPES

1. Shunt Wound

2. Series Wound

3. Compound wound

1. Shunt Motor

In shunt wound motor the field winding is connected in parallel with armature. The current through the shunt field winding is not the same as the armature current. Shunt field windings are designed to produce the necessary m.m.f. by means of a relatively large number of turns of wire having high resistance. Therefore, shunt field current is relatively small compared with the armature current

2. Series Motor

In series wound motor the field winding is connected in series with the armature. Therefore, series field winding carries the armature current. Since the current passing through a series field winding is the same as the armature current, series field windings must be designed with much fewer turns than shunt field windings for the same mmf.Therefore, a series field winding has a relatively small number of turns of thick wire and, therefore, will possess a low resistance.

3. Compound Wound Motor

Compound wound motor has two field windings; one connected in parallel with the armature and the other in series with it. There are two types of compound motor connections

1)    Short-shunt connection

2)    Long shunt connection

When the shunt field winding is directly connected across the armature terminals it is called short-shunt connection.

When the shunt winding is so connected that it shunts the series combination of armature and series field it is called long-shunt connection.

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