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The manner in which groups of warp yarns are raised by the harness to permit the insertion of the filling yarn determines the pattern of the weave, and in large measure the kind of fabric produced. Weave patterns can create varying degrees of durability in fabrics, adding to their usefulness and also to their appearnance.
There are three basic weaves. They are plain weave, twill weave and satin weave. All other weaves are a variation or a combination of these weaves. Basket weave and Rib weave are two variations of plain weave. In the same manner twill weave can also have number of variations, e.g., warp faced twill, weft faced twill, even twill, uneven twill, pointed twill, herring bone twill, gabardine, corkscrew and so on.
Graph paper (or pointed paper) is used to show the weaves or the order in which the Representation of Plain Weave yarns interlace in a fabric. It is used by textile designers to portray their designs or to analyse fabric weaves. Each vertical row of squares represents a warp yarn and each horizontal row of squares represents a filling yarn. A warp yarn crossing over a fillings usually shown by marking in the square called a 'raiser'. A blank square over the warp called 'sinker'.
The weave diagram does not show the number of yarns per inch between warp and filling. The yarn size and type are also not indicated. The completed design shows the interlacing from the face side of the cloth. Most weaves are analysed from the face side.
A plain weave is a weave where each filling passes alternately over and under each warp in a square pattern. The interlacing is opposite in neighbouring cells. The repeat is over two ends and two picks.
1. Both sides are reversible until fabric is painted or printed from right side.
2. Fabrics have high abrasion resistance.
3. No yarn slippage.
4. There is no distinct design unless yarns have contrasting colors or thickness.
5. Easily produced; maximum yardage; inexpensive. Medium to dull lusture.
6. Adaptable for printing and other finishing process.
7. More durable. No floats. Medium drapability to very good drapability.
8. In old notation method, denoted by 'P'. Examples: Batiste, Cheese cloth, Cretonne, Percale, voile.
A satin weave is a weave where four (or more) shaft with warp floats in interrupted diagonal. Interlacings are never adjacent to one another. Satin repeat over altest 5 ends and 5 picks but the warp ends interlace only once per repeat.
1. Right and wrong sides look quite different.
2. Very low abrasion resistance.
3. It has interrupted diagonal discernible with magnifying glass.
4. It is more expensive. Excellent lusture.
5. Less durable.
6. Excellent Drapability.
7. Denoted by 'S'. Examples: Satin, Slipper satin, Creepe back satin.
A weave characterized by diagonal lines on the face of the fabric. The weft or warp yarns interlace with more than one warp yarn but never more than 4 warp yarns. On each successive line weft moves the design one step to the right or the left forming the diagonal. Whatever the direction of the diagonal on the face of the fabric the direction is opposite on reverse. The diagonal can vary
from a low 14 o angle called reclining twill to a 75 o angle called a step twill. The most common is 45 o and is regular or medium Twill Weave twill,steeper the twill stronger the fabric is likely to be. A 2 x 1 twill weave will be one where warp will go over 2 warp and under 1 weft. Suppose you have 4/2 weave, then it means that you will have 4 +2 =6 harnesses, (i.e) the repeat will have 6 boxes horizontaly and 6 boxes vertically.
1. Twill weave is one of the strongest weave.
2. It has fairly good drape.
3. More tightly woven.
4. A twill weave does not get dirt easily but once it gets dirt it becomes really difficult to clean them.
5. It has good wrinkle resistance.
6. Finer yarns with high twist are used in constructionof twill weaves.
7. Denim is an uneven warp faced twill weave fabrics. Wefts are in white and warps are in blue so denim is blue on one side and white from the other side.
8. Other variations of twill weave include: Pointed twill, Herring bone, Gabardine, Corkscrew twill and so on.
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