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Chapter: 11 th 12th std standard Bio Botany plant tree Biology Higher secondary school College Notes

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Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent

Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent
These fruits have dry pericarp, which is not distinguished into three layers. The dry simple fruits are further divided into three types- 1.Dehiscent 2.Schizocarpic 3.Indehiscent

Simple fruits
 
When a single fruit develops from a single ovary of a single flower, it is called simple fruit. The ovary may be monocarpellary or multicarpellary syncarpous. On the nature of pericarp, simple fruits are divisible into two types
 
i) Fleshy fruits and ii) Dry fruits

Simple Dry Fruits

 
These fruits have dry pericarp, which is not distinguished into three layers. The dry simple fruits are further divided into three types-
 
1. Dehiscent
 
2. Schizocarpic and
 
3. Indehiscent
 


1. Dehiscent dry fruits

 
            Legume: A dehiscent dry fruit produced from a monocarpellary, superior ovary, which dehisces from both the sutures into two valves. eg. Pea
 
            Follicle: A dehiscent dry fruit produced from a monocarpellary, superior ovary, which dehisces from one suture only. eg.Calotropis.
 
            Siliqua: A dehiscent dry fruit produced from a bicarpellary, syncarpous, superior, ovary, which is unilocular but appears bilocular due to false septum.
 
Fruits dehisce along both the sutures from base to apex and large number of seeds remain attached to the false septum calledreplum. eg. Brassica
 
            Capsule: A dehiscent dry fruit produced from syncarpous, superior or inferior ovary which dehisces along two or more lines of suture in various ways.
 
          Septicidal - eg. Aristolochia
 
            Loculicidal - eg. Gossypium, Abelmoschus
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2. Schizocarpic dry fruits

 
Lomentum: Fruit is similar to a legume but constricted between the seeds. Dehiscing sutures are transverse. The fruit splits into one-seeded indehiscent compartments at maturity; eg. Tamarindus, Cassia fistula.
 

Cremocarp: Fruit is produced from a bicarpellary, syncarpous, bilocular and inferior ovary. It is a two-seeded fruit which splits longitudinally into two indehiscent mericarps which remain attached to a thread-like carpophore. eg. Coriandrum
 
 
Regma: The fruit is produced from a bi- or multi-carpellary , syncarpous and superior ovary, it breaks up into as many segments or cocci as there are carpels; eg.Ricinus
 

3. Indehiscent dry fruits

         Achene: A small, indehiscent one seeded fruit developing from a monocarpellary ovary and in which the pericarp is hard, leathery and remains free from seed coat; eg. Mirabilis, Clematis.
 
            Caryopsis: A small, indehiscent and one seeded fruit developing from a monocarpellary ovary and in which the pericarp is fused with the seed coat. The seed completely fills the chamber; eg. Paddy, Maize
 
            Cypsela: The fruit is produced from bicarpellary, syncarpous and inferior ovary with persistent calyx forming the 'pappus'. It contains only one seed. The pericarp and seed coat remain free; eg. Tridax, Helianthus.
 
            Nut: A large, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit that develops from a bi- or multicarpellary ovary. The fruit wall becomes hard, stony or woody at maturity; etc. Cashew nut
 

            Samara: A dry indehiscent, one-seeded winged fruit developing from bicarpellary, syncarpous ovary. The wing is a modified outgrowth of pericarp; eg. Acer


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