Home | | Botany | | Botany | RUBIACEAE - the coffee family

Chapter: 11 th 12th std standard Bio Botany plant tree Biology Higher secondary school College Notes

| Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail |

RUBIACEAE - the coffee family

Systematic position Class: Dicotyledonae Sub-class: Gamopetalae Series: Inferae Order: Rubiales Family: Rubiaceae

RUBIACEAE - the coffee family

 

Systematic position

 

Class: Dicotyledonae

 

Sub-class: Gamopetalae

 

Series: Inferae

 

Order: Rubiales

 

Family: Rubiaceae

 

General characters

 

Distribution

 

Rubiaceae is one of the largest families consisting of nearly 500 genera and more than 6,500 species. They are widely distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. In India, this family is represented by 76 genera and more than 274 species.

 

Habit

 

Mostly trees (eg. Cinchona officinalis, Morinda tinctoria) or shrubs(eg. Mussaenda) or herbs (eg. Rubia).

 

Root

 

A branched tap root system.

 

Stem

 

Aerial, erect, cylindrical, woody and branched but herbaceous in Rubia.

 

Leaf

 

Simple, opposite decussate (eg. Ixora coccinea) or whorled (eg.Galium), entire and stipulate. The stipules of opposite leaves are fused at the node between the petioles. They are called interpetiolar stipules (eg. Ixora coccinea). When the stipules of each leaf are fused at the angle between petiole and stem, they are called intrapetiolar stipules. (eg.Gardenia).

 

Inflorescence

 

Mostly terminal or axillary cymose (eg. Gardenia) or corymbose cyme (eg. Ixora coccinea) or cymes are aggregated into dense head as in Anthocephalus indicus (Kadamba tree).


Flower

 

Bracteate, bracteolate, pedicellate, dichlamydeous, complete, tetra or pentamerous, actinomorphic and epigynous.

 

Calyx

 

Sepals 4 or 5, gamosepalous rarely polysepalous, showing valvate aestivation. In Mussaenda, one of the sepals is brightly coloured. It is called petaloid sepal.

 

Corolla

 

Petals 4 or 5, gamopetalous, hypocrateriform or salver shaped i.e. a long narrow tube consisting of limbs x placed at right angles to the tube (eg. Ixora coccinea), showing valvate or twisted or imbricate aestivation.

 

Androecium

 

Stamens 4 or 5, alternate with petals, epipetalous and inserted at the mouth of corolla tube. Anthers are dithecous, basifixed, introrse and dehiscing longitudinally.

 

Gynoecium

 

Ovary inferior, bicarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary bilocular with one or numerous ovules in each locule showing axile placentation. Style simple, stigma bilobed or capitate. There are five carpels in Gardenia.

 

Fruit

 

A berry (Ixora coccinea) or a capsule (Cinchona officinalis) or a multiple fruit (Morinda tinctoria).

 

Seed

 

Endospermous.

 

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail


Copyright © 2018-2020 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.