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Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea

Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
Imparipinnately compound, alternate, stipulate showing reticulate venation. Leaflets are stipellate. Petiole and stipel are pulvinated.

Botanical description of Clitoria ternatea

 

Habit

 

Twining climber.

 

Root

 

Branched tap root system having nodules.

 

Stem

 

Aerial, weak stem and a twiner.

 

Leaf

 

Imparipinnately compound, alternate, stipulate showing reticulate venation. Leaflets are stipellate. Petiole and stipel are pulvinated.

 

Inflorescence

 

Axillary and solitary.

 

Flower

 

Bracteate, bracteolate, bracteoles usually large, pedicellate, dichlamydeous, complete, bisexual, pentamerous, zygomorphic and hypogynous.

 

Calyx

 

Sepals 5, green, gamosepalous showing valvate aestivation. Odd sepal is anterior in position.

 

Corolla

 

Petals 5, blue or white, polypetalous, irregular, papilionaceous corolla showing descendingly imbricate aestivation.

 

Androecium

 

Stamens 10, diadelphous (9)+1, nine stamens fused to form a bundle and the tenth stamen is free, posterior and opposite to the standard petal. Anthers are dithecous, basifixed, introrse and dehiscing by longitudinal slits.

 

Gynoecium

 

Ovary superior, stipitate and monocarpellary. Ovary unilocular with many ovules on marginal placentation. Style simple and incurved with feathery stigma.

 

Fruit

 

A legume.

 

Seed

 

Non-endospermous and kidney shaped.

 

Floral formula

Br., Brl., per,  &+, K (5), C 5 , A (9) + 1G 1

 


Economic importance

 

1.        Pulses

 

The seeds of Cajanus cajan (red gram), Vigna mungo (black gram), Vigna radiata (green gram), Vigna ungiculata (horse gram) and Cicer arietinum (chick pea) are rich in proteins and used as pulses.

 

2.        Vegetables

 

The tender fruits of Lablab purpureus (field bean) and leaves of

Sesbania grandiflora (agathi) are used as vegetables and greens.

 

3.        Oil plants

 

Oil extracted from the seeds of Arachis hypogea (ground nut) is used for cooking. Seeds are edible. Pongam oil obtained from the seeds of Pongamia pinnata (pongam) has medicinal value and is used in the preparation of soap.

 

4.        Timber plants

 

Timber is obtained from Dalbergia latifolia (rose wood) andPterocarpus santalinus (red sandal wood) is used for making furniture, cabinet articles and other building materials.


5.        Fibre plants

 

Fibres obtained from Crotalaria juncea (sunhemp) and Sesbania aegyptiaca (sesban) are used for making ropes.

 

6.        Dye plants

 

The important blue dye, indigo obtained from Indigofera tinctoria (Avuri) is used in the colouring of printing ink and paints. Blue dye is also obtained from the flowers and seeds of Clitoria ternatea.

 

7.        Ornamental plants

 

Butea frondosa (flame of the forest), Clitoria ternatea, Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea) and Lupinus hirsutus are grown as ornamental plants.

 

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