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Chapter: 11 th 12th std standard Bio Botany plant tree Biology Higher secondary school College Notes

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Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea

Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
The seeds of Coffea arabica (Coffee plant) are roasted and powdered for making coffee. The stimulating effect of coffee is due to the presence of alkaloid �caffeine�.

Botanical description of Ixora coccinea

 

 

Habit

 

An evergreen shrub.

 

Root

 

Branched tap root system

Stem

 

Aerial, erect, branched, cylindrical and woody.

 

Leaf

 

Simple, opposite decussate, oblong, stipulate with interpetiolar stipules and unicostate reticulate venation.

 

Inflorescence

 

Terminal or axillary dense corymbose cyme.

 

Flower

 

Bracteate, bracteolate, dichlamydeous, bisexual, complete, tetramerous, actinomorphic and epigynous.

 

Calyx

 

Sepals 4, green, gamosepalous showing valvate aestivation, regular and persistent.

 

Corolla

 

Petals 4, bright red or yellow or white, gamopetalous, showing twisted aestivation, hypocrateriform, corolla tube long and slender.

 

Androecium

 

Stamens 4, epipetalous, attached at the throat of the corolla tube, filaments short, alternate the petals. Anthers are dithecous, basifixed, introrse and dehiscing longitudinally.

 

Gynoecium

 

Ovary inferior, bicarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary bilocular with one ovule in each locule showing axile placentation. Style simple and filiform. Stigma bifid.

 

Fruit

 

A berry.

 

Seed

 

Endospermous.

 

 

 

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

 

1.        Beverage plants

 

The seeds of Coffea arabica (Coffee plant) are roasted and powdered for making coffee. The stimulating effect of coffee is due to the presence of alkaloid 'caffeine'.

 

2.        Medicinal plants

 

The drug 'quinine' obtained from the bark of Cinchona officinalis is used throughout the world in the treatment of malarial fever. The extract obtained from the fruits of Randia tinctoria possesses insecticidal and insect repellant properties.

 

3.        Dye plants

 

The dyes alizarin and purpurin are obtained from the roots of Rubia tinctoria (madder). A red dye is extracted from the root and barks of Oldenlandia umbellata (Dye root). A yellow dye is obtained from the barks of Morinda angustifolia.

 

4.        Timber plants

 

Timber of commercial value is obtained from Adina cordifolia (Manjakkadambu) and Morinda tinctoria (Nuna tree).

 

5.        Ornamental plants

 

Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine), Ixora coccinea (Iddlipoo) and Mussaenda frondosa (Vellai madandhai) are grown in gardens.

 

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