Vitamins may be defined as organic compounds occurring in small quantities in the different natural foods and necessary for the growth and maintenance of good health in human beings.
Vitamin A plays a critical role in vision in dim light.
Vitamin A is essential for the integrity of the mucous secreting cells of epithelial tissues.
It is essential for normal bone formation.
Vitamin A deficiency causes degeneration of the myelin sheath.
Vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of mucoproteins and glycoproteins.
It is essential for normal reproduction.
Vitamin A is present only in foods of animal origin, such as liver, eggs, milk and fatty fish. All plant foods contain only carotenoids which is converted to vitamin A in the body .Papaya, mango, carrots, green leafy vegetables and other yellow, orange coloured fruits and vegetables are good sources of b-carotene.
Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the small intestines.
This also acts on the bones directly promoting calcification.
It regulates the concentration of calcium in blood plasma.
The good sources of vitamin D includes sunlight, fish liver oils, butter, cheese, ghee and milk.
It is essential for normal reproduction in man.
It is required for the normal functioning of the immune system.
It is an antioxidant, which reduces the incidence of heart diseases.
Vegetable oils and fats, nuts and oilseeds and whole grams are the richest natural sources of vitamin E.
Vitamin K is essential for blood coagulation. It is required for the synthesis of various substances needed for blood clotting.
The concentration of vitamin K is highest in dark green leafy vegetables, but it is also found in liver, pulses, cereals and some tubers.
Vitamin C is essential for
Formation of collagens and intercellular cement substances.
Absorption of iron and incorporation of plasma iron in ferritin.
Adrenal cortex function.
Neuro transmitter synthesis.
Aids in calcium absorption.
Activation of hormones.
The rich sources of vitamin C includes amla, guava and other citrus fruits. Good sources include green leafy vegetables and fruits like papaya and tomato.
Thiamine is essential for growth.
It is essential for maintaining the nerves in normal condition.
It plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism.
Diets based on whole wheat, millets, raw hand pounded rice or parboiled rice usually supplies thiamine in the diet. Organ meats, pork, liver, eggs and whole grams are fair sources of thiamine.
Riboflavin is involved in the regulatory functions of some hormones involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
The retina contains free riboflavin, which is converted by light to a compound involved in stimulation of the optic nerve.
Riboflavin plays, an important role in many enzyme systems involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
It is involved in the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
Rich sources of riboflavin include milk and milk products, eggs, liver, and dried yeast. Good sources are green leafy vegetables, whole cereals and millets, meat and fish. Fair sources include milled cereals, cereal products and roots and tubers.
Nicotinic acid is essential for the normal functioning of the skin, intestinal tract and the nervous system.
Nicotinic acid is a component of two coenzymes NAD and NADP, which take part in several enzymatic reactions.
The rich sources of niacin are groundnuts, dried yeast and liver. Good sources are whole cereals, legumes, meat and fish. The fair sources include milled cereals, maize, milk and eggs.
Pyridoxine like other vitamins functions as a co-enzyme.
It is essential for growth of infants and prevention of macrocytic anemia.
Meat, pulses,wheat and dried yeast are good sources while green leafy vegetables and other cereals are fair sources of this vitamin.
It is essential for the maturation of red blood cells.
It is required for the normal growth and division of all cells.
It plays a role in the metabolism of some amino acids.
It prevents megaloblastic anaemia.
Fresh green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver and eggs are rich sources of this vitamin. Cereals, pulses, nuts, oilseeds and other vegetables like ladies finger and cluster beans are good sources of this vitamin.
It promotes the maturation of erythroid cells.
It is involved in biochemical-processes essential for DNA synthesis and division of cells.
It is required for the synthesis of myelin, the white sheath that covers the nerve fibers.
It stimulates appetite and improves the general health of the patient.
It cures the neurological symptoms of pernicious anemia.
Vitamin B(12) is normally present only in animal foods like liver, egg, mutton and milk.
It is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, B12 and hemoglobin.
The best sources of pantothenic acid are liver, kidney, egg yolk, yeast and fresh vegetables. Milk and meat are fairly good sources.
Biotin takes part as a coenzyme in several metabolic functions of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Liver, kidney and yeast extracts are good sources. Pulses, nuts and chocolate are fair sources of this vitamin.