Matter may exist in
three different physical states namely solid, liquid and gas. If you look
around, you may find mostly solids rather than liquids and gases. Solids differ
from liquids and gases by possessing definite volume and definite shape. In the
solids the atoms or molecules or ion are tightly held in an ordered arrangement
and there are many types of solids such as diamond, metals, plastics etc., and
most of the substances that we use in our daily life are in the solid state. We
require solids with different properties for various applications.
Understanding the relation between the structure of solids and their properties
is very much useful in synthesizing new solid materials with different
In this chapter, we
study the characteristics of solids, classification, structure and their
properties; we also discuss the crystal defects and their significance.