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Role of Commercial Banks in Economic Development of a Country
Banks play an important role in capital formation, which is essential for the economic development of a country. They mobilize the small savings of the people scattered over a wide area through their network of branches all over the country and make it available for productive purposes.
Now -a-days, banks offer very attractive schemes to induce the people to save their money with them and bring the savings mobilized to the organized money market. If the banks do not perform this function, savings either remains idle or used in creating other assets,(eg.gold) which are low in scale of plan priorities.
Banks create credit for the purpose of providing more funds for development projects. Credit creation leads to increased production, employment, sales and prices and thereby they bring about faster economic development.
Banks invest the savings mobilized by them for productive purposes. Capital formation is not the only function of commercial banks. Pooled savings should be allocated to various sectors of the economy with a view to increase the productivity. Then only it can be said to have performed an important role in the economic development.
Many banks help in the development of the right type of industries by extending loan to right type of persons. In this way, they help not only for industrialization of the country but also for the economic development of the country. They grant loans and advances to manufacturers whose products are in great demand. The manufacturers in turn increase their products by introducing new methods of production and assist in raising the national income of the country. Sometimes, sub-prime lending is also clone. That is how there was an economic crisis in the year 2007-08 in the US.
Commercial banks transform the loan to be repaid after a certain period into cash, which can be immediately used for business activities. Manufacturers and wholesale traders cannot increase their sales without selling goods on credit basis. But credit sales may lead to locking up of capital. As a result, production may also be reduced. As banks are lending money by discounting bills of exchange, business concerns are able to carryout the economic activities without any interruption.
Government is acting as the promoter of industries in underdeveloped countries for which finance is needed for it. Banks provide long -term credit to Government by investing their funds in Government securities and short-term finance by purchasing Treasury Bills. RBI has given ₹ 68,000 crores to the government of India in the year 2018-19, this is 99% the RBI's surplus.
After the nationalization of big banks, banking industry has grown to a great extent. Bank’s branches are opened frequently, which leads to the creation of new employment opportunities.
In recent days, banks have assumed the role of developing entrepreneurship particularly in developing countries like India by inducing new entrepreneurs to take up the well-formulated projects and provision of counseling services like technical and managerial guidance.
Banks provide 100% credit for worthwhile projects, which is also technically feasible and economically viable. Thus commercial banks help for the development of entrepreneurship in the country.
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