The Ricks Banks of Sweden, which had sprung from a private bank established in 1656 is the oldest central bank in the world. It acquired the sole right of note issue in 1897. But the fundamentals of the art of banking have been developed by the Bank of England (1864) as the first bank of issues.
A large number of central banks were established between 1921 and 1954 in compliance with the resolution passed by the International Finance Conference held at Brussels in 1920. The South African Reserve Bank (1921), the Central Bank of China (1928), The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (1934), The Reserve Bank of India (1935), the Central Bank of Ceylon (1950) and the Bank of Israel (1954) were established.