After studying this chapter the students will be able to,
• Identify the role of ATP in cellular activities.
• Define metabolism and describe the fundamental differences between catabolism and anabolism.
• Explain oxidation – reduction reaction.
• List and provide examples of three types of phosphorylation reactions that generates ATP.
• Describe the Carbohydrate, Lipid, Protein and its pathways (Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain)
• Electron transport chain and chemiosmotic model for ATP generation.
• Understand about the types of fermentation and its products.
• Describe the mechanism of enzymatic activity and significance of microbial enzymes.
2. Energy of Chemical Reaction
3. Generation of ATP
4. Carbohydrate Catabolis
5. Tricarboxylic Acid Cyc
6. Electron Transport Chai
7. Lipid Catabolism
8. Protein Metabolism
All living organisms are constantly in need of energy to function. The life support activity of even the most structurally simple organism involves a large number of complex biochemical reactions. Living cells carry out three major types of processes namely Chemical Process, Transport Process and Mechanical Process. In chemical processes, energy is required to synthesize complex biological molecules from much simpler molecules. Transport processes require energy to take up nutrients, eliminate waste, and maintain ion balance. Mechanical processes require energy to change the physical location of structures within cells. Even during resting state, a substantial amount of energy is needed for fundamental functions of cells. All living system obeys the laws of thermodynamics. This law analyzes energy changes in a collection of matter called system (a cell or a plant).
The energy exchanges between the system and the surrounding balance each other. All chemical reactions in cells involve energy transformation. (For example: Photosynthetic bacteria transform radiant energy into chemical energy) . In living cells thermodynamic changes are essential for biological function such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis andrespiration. Microorganisms obtain energy and nutrients for their survival and reproduction through metabolism. The microbial species and ecological niche can often be differentiated from each other based on metabolic characteristics. The metabolic reaction often allows the use of micro organisms in fermentation process and biogeochemical cycle.
Three fourth of the energy is derived from carbohydrate that we consume and Glucose is the major fuel for all living organisms.