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Chapter: Environmental Science and Engineering

Human Population and the Environment

1 Objectives 2 Family Welfare Programme 3 Family Planning Programme 4 Environment And Human Health 5 Human Rights 6 Value Education 7 Hiv /Aids 8 Womans And Child Welfare 9 Role Of Information Technology In Environment 10 Role Of Information Technology In Human Health


1 Objectives

2 Family Welfare Programme

3 Family Planning Programme

4 Environment And Human Health

5 Human Rights

6 Value Education

7 Hiv /Aids

8 Womans And Child Welfare

9 Role Of Information Technology In Environment

10 Role Of Information Technology In Human Health


1 Objectives


Ø   To get a knowledge on human population and human rights.


Ø   To educate the students on value education.


Ø To equip the students towards the modern technology with respect to environment and human health.


1.1 Population density

Number of individuals of the population per unit area or per unit volume.


1.2 Parameters affecting population size

ü   Birth rate


ü   Death rate or Mortality


ü   Immigration


ü   Emigration.


1.3 Population Growth


The rapid growth of the global population for the past 100 years from the difference between the rate of birth and death.


Table.5.1 Population statistics in India as on 2010


1.4 Causes of rapid population growth

v   The rapid population growth is due to decrease in death rate and increase in birth rate.

v   Availability of antibiotics, immunization, increased food production, clean water and air decreases the famine-related deaths. 

v   In agricultural based countries, children are required to help parents in the field that is why population increases in the developing countries.

1.5 Characteristics of population growth

§    Exponential growth


§    Doubling time


§    Infant mortality rate


§    Total fertility rate


§    Replacement level


§    Male/female ratio


§    Demographic transition.


1.6 Variation of population based on age structure

2.     Pyramid shaped – India, Bangladesh, and Ethiopia.

3.     Bell shaped – France, USA, and UK.

Fig. 5.1 Bell and Pyramid shaped Population structure

3.  Urn shaped - Germany, Italy, and Japan.

1.7 Population Explosion

The enormous increase in population due to low death rate and high birth rate.


1.8 Causes

Modern medical facilities, life expectancy, illiteracy.


1.9 Effects

Poverty, Environmental degradation, over –exploitation of natural resources, threat, communal war.


1.10 Remedy

Through birth control programmes.




2.1 Objectives


o Slowing down the population explosion 

o Over exploitation of natural resources





o Reduce infant mortality rate. o Encourage late marriages.


Improve women’s health.

Control of communal diseases.




1.     Physical Hazards – Radioactive and UV radiations, Global warming, Chlorofluro carbons, Noise etc.


2.     Chemical Hazards – Combustion of Fossil fuels, industrial effluence, pesticides, heavy metals.


3.     Biological Hazards- Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites.




v   Human right to freedom


v   Human right to property


v   Human right to freedom of religion


v   Human right to culture and education


v   Human right to constitutional remedies


v   Human right to equality


v   Human right against exploitation


v   Human right to food and environment


v   Human right to good health.


v   To promote interdependence among Asian countries in all areas of cooperation by identifying Asia's common strengths and opportunities which will help reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for Asian people whilst developing a knowledge-based society within Asia and enhancing community and people empowerment;


v   To expand the trade and financial market within Asia and increase the bargaining power of Asian countries in lieu of competition and, in turn, enhance Asia's economic competitiveness in the global market;


v   To serve as the missing link in Asian cooperation by building upon Asia's potentials and strengths through supplementing and complementing existing cooperative frameworks so as to become a viable partner for other regions;


v   To ultimately transform the Asian continent into an Asian Community, capable of interacting with the rest of the world on a more equal footing and contributing more positively towards mutual peace and prosperity.





It is nothing but learning about the particular thing through knowledge. We can identify our values and ourselves with the help of knowledge and experience.




1. Formal education-Self related learning process.

2. Value education – Analyze based on instruments.


3. Value-based environment education- Based on environment.



6.2 Objectives

ü   To improve the integral growth of human begins.


ü   To create attitudes and improvement towards sustainable lifestyle.


ü   To increase awareness about our national history our cultural heritage, constitutional rights, national integration, community develo9pment and environment.


ü   To create and develop awareness about the values and their significance and role.


ü   To know about various living and non- living organisms and their interaction with environment.


6.3 Types of values

v   Universal values-Importance of the human conditions.


v   Cultural values-Right, wrong, good and bad.


v   Individual values-Individual personality and experiences.


v   Global values-Human civilization.


v   Spiritual values-Self-restraint, discipline.




AIDS is the abbreviated form for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immune deficiency Virus).


7.1 Origin of HIV/AIDS

1.     Through African Monkey

African monkey or Chimpanzees To human.

2.     Through Vaccine Programme

(a)Polio, small pox vaccine from monkey’s kidney-Africa.

(b) Hepatitis-B viral vaccine-Los Angles and New York.


7.2 Factors influencing modes of Transmission of HIV

1. Unprotected sex with infected person.


2. Using needles or syringes from HIV positive person.

3. During pregnancy, breast feeding HIV transmits from mother to infant babies.

4. Blood transfusion during accident and pregnancy.


5. Biologically the male to female transmission is 2 to 4 time more efficient than female to male transmission.


6.   Women’s cervical tissue is more vulnerable to HIV than men.


7.3 Factors not influencing transmission of HIV


1. Tears, food, air, cough, handshake and normal kissing.

2. Mosquito flies and insect bites.

3. Sharing of utensils, clothes, toilets and bathroom.



·        Death

·        Loss of labor


·        Inability to work

·        Lack of energy.


7.4 Functions of HIV in human body


White blood cells (WBC) are responsible for the formation of antibodies called T-helper cells’-helper cells are the key infection fighters in the immune system. Once HIV cells are enter into the boy they destroy the T-cells and cause many infection diseases.

7.5 Symptoms

I.Minor symptoms

ü   Persistent cough for more than one month.


ü   General skin disease.


ü   Viral infection.


ü   Fungus infection in mouth and throat.


ü   Frequent fever, headache and fatigue.


II.               Major symptoms

ü   Diarrhea for more than one month.


ü   TB for more than one month.


ü   Fall of hairs.


ü   10% of body weight loss within short period.



7.6 Mechanism of Infection


7.7 Control and Preventive measures

1.     Education.

2.     Prevention of Blood borne HIV transmission.

3.     Primary health care.

4.     Counseling services.

5.     Drug treatment.


7.8 Scenario in India

Large number of cases has been reported in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.


7.9 World Scenario


Nearly 90% of the HIV affected peoples live in developing countries.13% of world’s population live in Africa. About 3 million people so far died due to HIV in 2003.In the world AIDS ranking India is in 2nd place.

7.10 HIV symbol and World AIDS day



5.8.1    Objectives

v   To provide education


v   To impart vocational training


v   To generate awareness


v   To improve employment opportunities



v   To restore dignity, equality and respect.



1. Remote sensing

Components - A platform, aircraft, a balloon, rocket and satellite.



·        Origin of electro magnetic energy

·        Transmission of energy

·        Interaction of energy

·        Detection of energy

·        Preprocessing of data


·        Data analysis and interpretation

·        Integration and other applications.


In agriculture, forestry, land cover, water resources.


2. Data Base- Collection of inter related data on various subjects.



§    Ministry of environment and forest


§    National management information system


§    Environmental information system.



3. Geographical information system (GIS)


It is a technique of superimposing various thematic maps using digital data on a large number of inter-related aspects.


Ø   Thematic maps are super imposed using soft wares.

Ø   Interpretation of polluted zones

Ø   To check unplanned growth and related environmental problems.

4. Satellite data

v   Helps in providing reliable information and data about forest cover



v   Provide information about forecasting weather

v   Reserves of oil, minerals can be discovered.

5. World Wide Web

It provides Current data.



·        Online learning

·        Digital files or photos, animations on environmental studies.




The health service technology involves three systems Ø Finance and accounting


Ø Pathology

Ø Patient Administration – clinical system.


§ Data regarding birth and death rates

§ To monitor the health of the people effectively

§ The information regarding the outbreak of epidemic diseases.

§ Online Consultation

§ Drugs and its replacement.


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