Graphic aids are charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, flashcards, posters, pictures, photographs, leaflets, folders, pamphlets, cartoons and comics. They are two-dimensional materials having no depth which communicate facts, ideas and relationships clearly through words, lines, drawings, symbols and pictures. Graphic aids can serve many educational objectives for group teaching of 20 to 30 students. They help to:
1. Visualise abstract concepts which are difficult to understand - concepts of size, rate of growth, inner structure of an object or machine etc.
2. Reduce the amount of verbal talking and help in giving clear explanations; visuals in charts, graphs, diagrams and posters, cut down words.
3. Present the information in a specific and systematic manner. Since majority of them are formal aids, they have to be very systematic and organised.
They are also popular because they are
1. Comparatively less expensive.
2. Easy to make as no technical skills are required. Regular teachers, with some knowledge of drawing and who desire to be creative can prepare them.
3. Easy to use. Very special arrangements and machines are not required.
4. Easily usable and reusable as they are flat, two-dimensional materials.
Graphic Aids - I
This section includes those graphic aids which have similar principles of preparation, presentation and storage, and can be employed to do serious classroom teaching in home science.
Graphic Aids - II
This section includes those graphic aids which primarily may not be used for serious classroom teaching, and have individual, specific principles of preparation and presentation. Nevertheless, their knowledge may aid a home science teacher in doing her job efficiently.
A poster is a bold illustration with little or no writing. A good poster conveys the message at a glance. It is not used for serious classroom teaching as its main purpose is to publicise an event - demonstration, lecture, exhibition etc. or a product - embroidered garments, children's clothes, knitted articles etc. or an idea - save money, give up smoking, preserve water, keep clean, abolish dowry, conserve energy, etc.
While preparing a poster
1. Have only one idea suggesting an action.
2. Use a thick chart or drawing paper, which is usually available in 22 x 28 inch size, keeping to 1 inch margin on all sides.
3. Have an informal but balanced layout.
4. Use large, bold and simple illustrations for a passerby to get the message easily. Avoid details and shading.
5. Have brief, personal, forceful and appealing titles. For example eat vegetables, - be healthy - health is important, etc.
6. Use simple, large, bold, horizontal lettering.
7. Plan definite eye movement.
8. Use colour to make the poster attractive. A dark colour background with white or light colour lettering, and an illustration make a very appealing and unique poster. Use a few, well matched colours to have a pleasant picture, and bright colour in small proportion to attract attention.
Place a poster at a high level, in a place which is free from other advertisements, and from where many persons pass by; examples - cafeteria, library, common room, etc.