A unitary form of government is one in which all the powers are concentrated in the hands of the central government. The central government creates local units for administrative convenience and delegates to them such power as it deems necessary. These local units are called local governments.
England, France, Japan, SriLanka are examples of Unitary governments.
Some leading writers defined unitary government as follows:
GARNER: 'Where the whole power of government is conferred by the constitution upon a single central organ'
A.V.DICEY: 'Habitual exercise of supreme legislative authority is by one central power'
C.F.STRONG mentions two important qualities of the Unitary Government. They are:-
1. The supremacy of the central government;
2. The absence of the subsidiary sovereign bodies.
The distinction between subsidiary law-making bodies and subsidiary sovereign bodies is the distinction between the local authorities in a unitary state and state authorities in a federal state.
1. There is unity, uniformity of law, policy and administration.
2. There is no conflict of authority and responsibility.
3. A unitary government will make prompt decisions and take speedy action.
4. A unitary government is less expensive.
5. Amendments to the constitution are easy.
6. Suitable for small countries.
1. The concentration of powers may pave way for the despotism of the central government.
2. The central government will have to tackle so many complex problems that they have no adequate time to devote to local affairs.
3. The central government will not be acquainted with local problems, local interest and initiative.
4. It is not suitable for big countries.