The term lipid or fat is applied to a group of naturally occurring substances characterised by their insolubility in water. The lipids present in the diet of animal and human body includes triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol.
Fats are a concentrated source of energy. One gram of fat provides 9 calories.
Fat is essential for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A, D, E and K.
Fats improve the palatability and gives a satiety value (ie) feeling of fullness in the stomach.
Fats are deposited in adipose tissue and thus serve as a reserve source of energy during starvation and illness.
They protect vital organs in the body by forming a lining on top.
They act as insulators against heat and cold.
They are the essential constituent of the membrane of every cell.
Phospholipids are present in the plasma in combination with proteins as lipoproteins which are involved in the transport of fat and cholesterol.
Phospholipids are present in large amounts in the nervous system and essential for its function.
Cholesterol serves as a precursor for the formation of bile acids.
Pure oils and fats 100
Ghee and vanaspathi 100
Nuts and oil seeds 40-60
Milk powder, fullfat 26
Meat and fish 10-15
Milk, cow's 4
Milk, buffalo 7
Pulses (whole) 3-5
Cereals and millets 2-3