The preparation and service of food requires
handling of materials which are extremely vulnerable to becoming the media of
contamination thereby leading to the spread of infection and disease. To assess
the hygiene and sanitation requirement of an establishment, the following
aspects need to be considered.
This refers to the total environment in which food is prepared and
should be scrutinised for the amount of air pollution or whether it is free
from the potential of infestation by insects, rats, flies, etc.. The water
lines and sewage disposal lines should not run too close to each other because
in the event of a leak, the water supply can get contaminated.
The cleanability of floors, walls, ceilings or any other surfaces is the
basis for maintaining a structure free from the hazards of infection. The
materials selected therefore should be non absorbent, non - corrosive and easy
to keep clean. The kitchen should be subjected to regular pest control
Facilities for proper sewage disposal and the construction of adequate
plumbing for kitchen is of consequence in sanitation. All sewage lines must be
directed into the public sewage system. Faulty plumbing can prove a hazard if
it leads to frequent blockages of drains that results in backflows.
3. Equipment, Furniture and Fittings
These should be designed so that they do not harbour dust or dirt, which
is the source of microorganisms. Any equipment, which are chipped or damaged,
should be discarded. In addition, knowledge of the use of proper detergents is
essential to avoid leaving chemical residues on surfaces that may contaminate
Ventilation plays a very important role in clearing the hot air and
bringing down temperature as well as the carbon-di-oxide content. All kitchens
must be provided with exhaust fans and extraction hoods to provide proper
should be well lighted to make dirt, grease and infestation easily detectable.
6. Water Supply
The water supply should be treated to ensure
that it is fit for drinking, cooking of food and washing of utensils.
All natural water supplies contain mineral salts and organic materials
in addition to dissolved gases from the air. Microbial activity also influences
the colour, odour and taste of the water. Water for food preparation purposes
may be considered hygienic when it is sufficiently pure to have only very small
quantities of substances dissolved in it which do not prove injurious to
Impurities in water may be present as fine suspensions or dissolved form
of salts of metals like lead, iron, zinc or others like carbonates, chlorides
and sulphates of calcium and magnesium which tend to cause hardness of water.
The other impurities may include particles of sand, pathogenic micro organisms,
eggs of parasitic worms and excessive amount of chemicals used as preservatives
which generally leads to diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, dysentry, weakness and
loss of appetite.
7. Waste Disposal
Kitchen waste which consists of peelings,
spillage, empty cans, etc. must never be allowed to remain anywhere near the
kitchen because they can attract insects, which can become agents of
contamination to wholesome food. Improper disposal can pollute water and
through it, contaminate equipment and food.