Depending upon the type of the display, materials can be arranged with the help of insulation, or soft board, perforated, magnet or chalkboard of glass or painted wood, showcases, tables, stands, or blocks. A display usually involves a careful and attractive arrangement of materials, which may be two-dimensional - paper, cloth, ribbons etc., or three - dimensional-objects, models, specimens etc. A single display can have materials of both dimensions; example - a display consisting of pictures and models of houses.
Different types of displays serve many purposes:
1. stimulate interest of the students (a bulletin board display on flower arrangement, a chalkboard work involving diagrams and line drawing)
2. publicise ideas (a perforated or a magnetic board display to publicise a family planning campaign)
3. explain things effectively (a chalkboard work on the various steps in cleaning precious metals)
4. bring several scattered ideas together (a flannel board story on sources, nutritional values and deficiency diseases of protein)
5. helps to introduce or summarise a topic (a showcase display on four food groups either in the beginning or at the end of a lesson on 'balanced diet')
6. give recognition to the creative and original work of students; examples - an insulation board display of stencil printing articles develop a group feeling if the displays are'put up by the students as a group
7. help students share things for which only one copy or specimen is available; examples - a recipe, an article, a picture- on any home science topic.
Like graphic aids, displays also are comparatively inexpensive, therefore, most schools and adult education agencies can afford them. They consist of locally available materials and it is possible to introduce improvisation. All displays have some common advantages. They
1. can be put up in advance/or their display material can be prepared in advance
2. are easy to put up, use, and transport
3. can be used repeatedly
4. can be used for a variety of subjects.
A chalkboard, a universally used teaching aid for writing and drawing can be made of slate, or of glass, or by painting wood or a part of a wall with blackboard paint. A chalkboard could be in the form of sliding doors and storage facility can be provided behind it. A piece of oil cloth - 30 x 40 inches, painted with blackboard paint can make a roller chalkboard, which can be carried from one place to another very conveniently, for community teaching and extension work.
Place a Chalkboard Correctly
A wall chalkboard can be permanently fixed on the wall which is next to a wall which has doors or windows, to avoid glare but also to have enough light. In a graded, gallery type classroom, a chalkboard can be at the eye-level. Take a round in the classroom to check the lighting and visibility from different angles. The chalkboard can be kept on an easel stand, which can be carried from one room to another and also can be lowered or raised as desired by the audience. Remove any pictures, photographs or decorative pieces hanging too close to a chalkboard, which may distract the attention of the students. A chalkboard, also known as a blackboard, is used extensively because of its many advantages:
1. it is comparatively cheap and easily available or made.
2. it permits advanced preparation. Before a demonstration class meets, a teacher can write down the ingredients and the method of the demonstration.
3. it can be used for any topic in home science; examples - protein, neck-lines, first aid, care of a new-born baby etc.
4. it is suitable for all age groups - nursery school children to adults.
5. it is a flexible medium of teaching. One can write or draw, rub and rewrite, add new details, join related information and so on, while teaching.
6. the students are encouraged to participate. They can come forward and do some explaining or drawing with the help of a chalkboard.
Guidelines to use a Chalkboard effectively
1. before using a chalkboard, see that it is clean and there is an adequate supply of chalks and a duster. Wash the chalkboard with a clean, wet cloth once in a while.
2. plan your chalkboard presentation beforehand. For advance students and simple topics, extempore drawings and terms may be written but for young students and complex subjects, chalkboard work must be planned in advance.
3. use simple, bold, large enough print type, straight rather than slanted letters for easy readability. Avoid ornamental and running script, type letters.
4. combine capital letters with lower case letters.
5. poise the chalk slanted on the chalkboard to avoid screeching.
6. give enough weight to the chalk while writing to make bold impressions.
7. use coloured chalks to emphasize points and to form contrasts.
8. use arrows, circles, and bars to stress the key points.
9. control your movements as they distract the students.
10. talk and then immediately write briefly. Avoid talking while writing which will seem as if you are talking to a chalkboard rather than the audience. After writing, stand on one side, face the audience and explain further. You may use a pointer to direct and focus attention on any particular point.
11. erase in a uniform manner from top to bottom so that the chalkdust gets collected on the extended narrow shelf at the bottom of the chalkboard or on the floor.
12. avoid overcrowding the chalkboard with too many words and figures. Rub out the things already explained and not needed anymore. Good planning helps a lot.
13. also use other visual aids, like charts, graphs, maps, etc.
14. illustrate ideas with drawings which can be done freehand or with the help of a silhouette or perforated stencils of wood or cardboard. Line or stick drawing is also helpful.