As noted elsewhere democracy is of two kinds. One is direct democracy and the other is indirect democracy.
The chief direct democratic devices are :
The devices are followed by Switzerland, which practices direct democracy. They are followed in some other countries also. However, they have not been successful.
Initiative is a method, which enables the voters to bring to the notice of the government of the need to bring in legislation in any subjects on which the government has not enacted a law.
There are certain procedures prescribed and minimum requirement to be fulfilled for initiative. One of the important conditions is that a minimum of 50,000 votes should submit a bill asking the government to enact a law of the choice of the voters.
Government may or may not accept, because this proposal of the people should have the support of the majority of the voters of the nation.
Referendum is a procedure according to which laws enacted by the national parliament are referred to acceptance of the lectors.
Electors may accept or reject the enactment. If the electors accepted the enactment it will become a law. Referendum is of two kinds. One is compulsory referendum and the second is optional referendum. For this also there are certain procedures to be followed.
In democracies voter elect their representatives in the elections to various bodies such as legislatures, local self - government, councils and a few governing agencies.
Once elected these representative hold offices for the entire duration of the life of the body concerned. Representatives sometimes do not perform their duties and discharge their responsibilities.
If the electors are not happy, with their representative they cannot compel them to do the same. They have to wait till the next elections to remove such members from office. Therefore a demand has arisen for removing such representatives and electing new faces in their place.
This method of removing the representatives before the completion of their terms and electing new persons is called the method of 'Recall'. This is practiced in some countries the Switzerland and the United States of America.