Diseases are of two types. They are communicable and non communicable diseases. The common diseases spread rapidly through the medium of air, food, water, contact and insect bite. They are caused by agents/pathogens, which include bacteria, virus and worms. These diseases can be prevented and controlled by - immunity, good nutrition and sanitation.
Barriers against disease germs
Skin - The germs cannot enter unless the skin is damaged. Mucin secreted by mucous membranes repel bacteria.
Saliva. The antiseptic quality of the saliva is well-known.
Tear glands. Produce secretion containing 'lysozyme' which has a potential of filling and washing away germs.
Nasal opening have cilia that sweep out germs to some extent.
Urine and faeces, besides excreting body waste also gets rid of some of the pathogens.
Stomach secretes 'pepsin hydrochloric acid' that burns away some of the germs.
Blood contains WBCs which engulf the bacteria and release a ferment to liquefy bacteria.
Lymph nodes engulf the disease germs and kill them.
How diseases spread
Diseases are of two main types. They are communicable diseases and non communicable diseases. The communicable diseases spread rapidly through the medium of air, food, and water contact and insect bites.
Communicable diseases are caused by agents/pathogens. These include micro-organisms like bacteria, virus and worms. The child/ individual who gets disease is commonly called a 'host'. The time of pathogen entry to the appearance of disease symptoms is called 'incubation period of the disease'.
A disease is known to be communicable when it spreads from one person to another. Non-communicable disease does not spread from one person to another. The former spreads at a very fast rate and needs to be controlled before it proves serious/fatal.
Prevention and control of communicable diseases
Communicable diseases can be prevented and controlled by the following three factors:
You are very well-acquainted with the importance of good nutrition and its relation to the strength and well being of the child/individual.