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A brief history of cloning
Ø 1938 – First idea of cloning: Hans Spemann proposes a“fantasticexperiment” to replace the nucleus of an egg cell with the nucleus of another cell and to grow an embryo from such an egg;
Ø 1952 – An attempt to clone a Ranapipiens frog: Robert Briggs andThomas King; the scientists collect the nucleus from a frog egg cell with a pipette and replace it with the nucleus taken from a cell of a frog embryo; the experiment is not successful;
1970 – Xenopuslaevis frog: John B. Gurdon is successful: he clonesa frog, but its development only reaches the stage of tadpole. Despite attempts, he never manages to obtain an adult specimen. For many years, his achievement is questioned, especially in light of unsuccessful attempts to clone mammals;
Ø 1981 – Karl Illmenese and Peter Hope clone a mouse: They take thenucleus not from an adult specimen, but from a mouse embryo;
Ø 1994 – Neal First tries to clone a sheep: He takes the nucleus froman embryonic cell. He obtains a sheep embryo that develops 120 cells;
Ø 1995 – Two sheep are cloned (Moran and Megan): These had beenthe first animals cloned from differentiated cells obtained by means of a pioneering method of nuclei transfer. However, the cells from which the nucleus was taken did not come directly from another living animal, but from a cell culture. The ones who achieved that were Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell;
Ø 1996 – The first mammal cloned from a cell taken from an adult animal –Dolly the sheep. Creators: Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell;
Ø 1998 – The first cloned mouse (it was called Cumulina);
Ø 2000 – The first cloned rhesus monkey;
Ø 2000 – The first cloned pig (or even five pigs);
Ø 2001 – A buffalo and a cow cloned;
Ø 2001 – A cat cloned (it was called Copy Cat);
2002 –KonradHochedlinger and Rudolf Jaenisch clone mice from
Ø 2003 – A rabbit is cloned in France and Southern Korea;
Ø 2003 – A mule is cloned. It was achieved by the companies IdahoGem and Utah Pioneer;
Ø 2003 – A deer (Dewey), a horse (Prometea) and a rat (Ralph) cloned;
Ø 2004 – Fruit flies cloned;
Ø 2005 – An Afghan hound (Snuppy) cloned;
Ø 2007 – A wolf cloned; South Korean scientists obtained two femalewolves (Snuwolf and Snuwolffy);
Ø 2008 – A Labrador dog cloned;
Ø 2009 – The first animal from an extinct species cloned: Pyreneanibex. The animal lived seven minutes. It died of lung malformations;
Ø 2009 – A camel female cloned (Injaz); Injaz was created fromovarian cells of a female killed for meat in 2005.
Ø 2009 - Samrupa, the world's first Murrah buffalocalf cloned using asimple "Hand guided cloning technique" was born in February, 2009 at National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal, India, but died due to a lung infection five days after she was born.
Ø 2009– Garima-I, a buffalo calf cloned using an “Advanced Handguided Cloning Technique” was born in June, 2009 at the NDRI. Two years later in 2011, she died of a heart failure.
Ø 2009 - Garima-II, another cloned calf was born in August, 2010. A cloned male buffalo calf Shresth was born in August, 2010 at theNRDI.
Ø 2010 - Got, the first Spanish Fighting Bull was cloned by Spanishscientists.
Ø 2013 - This buffalo was inseminated with frozen-thawed semen of aprogeny tested bull and gave birth to a female calf, Mahima in January, 2013.
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