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The name 'United Nations,' was coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was first used in the 'Declaration by United Nations' of 1 January 1942. During the Second World War, representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Power (Germany, Italy and Japan).
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the soviet Union, the United Kingdom and United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August October 1994. The representatives of 50 countries signed the Charter on 26 June 1945. Poland, which was not represented at the conference, singed it later and became one of the original 51 member States. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.
The Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, along with previsions agreed upon by Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, formed the basis for the United Nations Conference on International Organization. This meeting, held in San Francisco in April 1945, produced the final charter of the United Nations. It was signed on june 26 and enacted on October 24, 1945.
On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedom set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status ����
The United Nations assumed many of the functions of the League of Nations that had been championed by Woodrow Wilson at the close of World War I�
The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of member States, and establishing the organization's organs and procedures.
The purpose of the United Nations, as set forth in the charter, are to maintain international peace and security.
1. To develop friendly relations among nations;
2. To cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems.
3. Promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and
4. To be centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.
The six major organs of the united Nations, are the : General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. The United Nations family, however, is much large, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies.
The United Nations of organizations is made up of he United Nations Secretariat, the United Nations programmes and funds- such as the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) - and the specialized agencies. The programmes, funds and agencies have their own governing. The programmes , funds and agencies have their own governing bodies and budgets, and set their own standards and guidelines. Together, they provide technical assistance and other forms of practical help in all areas of economic and social development.
The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of United Nations. It is composed of representatives of all member states, each of which has one vote. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, requires a two- thirds majority. A simple reaches decisions on other questions.
Most questions are discussed in its six main committees:
1. First Committee - Disarmament and International Security Committee
2. Second Committee - Econmic and Financial Committee
3. Third Committee - Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee
4. Fourth Committee - Special Political and Decolonzation Committee.
5. Fifth Committee - Adiministrative and Budgetary Committee
6. Sixth Committee - Legal Committee
Some issues are considered only in plenary meetings, rather
than in one of the main committees. All issues are voted on through resolutions passed in plenary meetings, usually
towards the end of the regular session, after the committees have completed their consideration of them and submitted draft resolution to the plenary Assembly. Voting in committees is by a simple majority.
In plenary meetings, resolutions may be adopted by acclamation, without objection or without a vote, or the vote may be recorded or taken by roll call. While the decisions of the Assembly have no legally binding force for governments, they carry the weight of world opinion, as well as the moral authority of the world community. The work of the United Nations year-round derives largely from the decisions of the General Assembly as expressed in resolutions adopted by the Assembly, That work is carried out:
1. By the committees and other bodies established by the Assembly to study and report on specific issues, such as disarmament, peacekeeping, development and human rights;
2. In International conferences called for by the Assembly; and
3. By the Secretariat of the United Nations - the Secretary General and his staff of international civil servants.
Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the General Assembly include:
1. To consider and make recommendations on the principals of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and arms regulation;
a. To discuss any questio n relating to international peace and security and, expect where a dispute or situation is being discussed by he Security Council, to make recommendations on it.
2. To discuss and, with the same exception, make recommendations on any question within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations;
a. To initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedom for all, and international collaboration in economic, social, cultural, educational and health fields;
3. � To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation, regardless of origin, which might impair friendly relations among nations.
4. To receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs;
a. To consider and approve the United Nations budget and to
b. apportion contributions among members;
5. To elect the non- permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and Social Council and those members of the Trusteeship Council that are elected
6. To elect jointly with the Security Council the judges of the International Court of Justice; and, on the recommendation of the Security Council; to appoint the Secretary- General.
The General Assembly's regular session usually begins each year in September. The 200-2001 session, for example, is the fifty-fifth regular session of the General Assembly. At the stat of each regular session, the Assembly elects a new presisdent,21 vice-presidents and the chair persons of the Assembly's six main committees. To ensure equitable geographical representatives, the presidency of the Assembly rotates each year among five groups of States: African, Asian, Eastern European, Latin American and Caribbean, and Western European and other States.
In addition to its regular sessions, the Assembly may meet in special sessions at the request of the Security Council, of a majority of Member States. Once member may call emergency special session within 24 hours of a request by the Security Council on the vote of any nine Council members, or by a majority of the United Nations members, or if the majority of members concurs.
At the beginning of each regular session, the Assembly holds a general debate, often addressed by heads of state and government, in which member states express their views on the most pressing international issues.
The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able to function to function continuously, and representatives of each of its members must be present at all times at United Nation Headquarters.
When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council's first action is usually to recommend to the parties to try to reach agreement by peaceful means. In some cases, the Council itself undertakes investigation and mediation. It may appoint special representatives or request the Secretary- General to do so or to use his good offices. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.
When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council's first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. On many occasions, the Council has issued cease-fire directives that have been instrumental in preventing wider hostilities.
It was sends United Nations peacekeeping forces to help reduce tensions it troubled areas, keep opposing forces apart, and create conditions of calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought. The Council may decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions. (Which as trade embargoes) or collective military action.
A member state against which preventive or enforcement the Security Council has taken action may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. The Assembly on the Council's recommendation may expel a member state that has persistently violated the principles of the Charter from the United Nations.
A state that is a member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that country's interests are affected. Both members of the United Nations and non-members, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, are invited to take part, without a vote, in he Council's discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-members state.
The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member states. The Council has 15 members-five permanent members and 10 elected by the General Assembly for two- year terms:
The permanent members of the Security Council are 1. USA 2.Russian Federation 3.UK 4. France and 5.China. Each Council member has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 members. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of 'great power unanimity,' often referred to as the 'veto' power.
All members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to governments, the Council alone has the power to take decisions that member states are obligated under the Charter to carry out.
The Economic and Social Council coordinates the work of the 14 UN specialized agencies, 10 functional commissions and five regional commissions; receives reports from 11 UN funds and programmes and issues policy recommendations to the UN system and to member states. ECOSOC is responsible for promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress; international cultural and educational cooperation; and encouraging universal respect for human and financial resources of the entire UN system.
In carrying out its mandate, ECOSOC consults with academic, business sector representatives and more than 2,100 registered non-governmental organizations. This year2003, ECOSOC President H.E. Gert Rosenthal will chair the high-level segment and it will cover' Promoting and integrated approach to rural development in developing countries for poverty eradication and sustainable development.' The Council will adopt a Ministerial Declaration, providing policy guidance and recommendations for action.
The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1st November 1994, with the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nation trust territory, on 1st October 1994. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required - by its decision or the decision of its President , or at the Security Council. In setting the Trusteeship Council as one of the main organs of the United Nations and assigned to it the task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. Major goals of the System were to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development towards self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council is made up of the five permanent members of the Security Council- China, France, Russian Federation, United kingdom and United States.
The aims of the Trusteeship System have been fulfilled to such an extent that all Trust Territories have attained self-government or independence, either separate states or by joining neighboring independent countries.
The Trusteeship Council is authorize to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the people of Trust Territories and, in consultation with the Administering Authority, to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other special missions to Trust Territories.
The International Court of Justice is the principle judicial organ of the United Nations. It is located at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). It began work in 1946, when it replaced the Permanent Court of International Justice, its predecessor, as an integral part of the Charter of the United Nations.
The Court has a dual role: to settle in accordance with international law the legal disputes submitted to it by states, and to give advisory opinion on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized international organs and agencies.
The Court is composed of 15 judges elected t nine-year term of office by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council sitting independent of each other.
It may not include more than one judge of any nationality. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected. The members of the Court do not represent their governments but are independent magistrates. The judges must possess the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the highest judicial offices, or be jurists of recognized competence in international law. The composition of the Court has also to reflect the main forms of civilization and principal legal system of the world.
It is an international staff working in duty stations around the world to carry out the diverse day-to-day work of the Organization. It services the other principle organs of the United Nations and administers the programmes and policies laid down by them. At its head is the Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term.
The duties carried out by the Secretariat are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations. These range from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development. Secretariat staff also inform the world's communications media about the work of the United Nations; organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern; and interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization's official languages.
The United Nations, while head quartered in New York, maintains a significant presence in a Addis Ababa, Bangkok, Beirut, Geneva, Nairobi, Santiago, and Vienna, and has offices all over the world.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-Vienna, Austria International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Montreal, Canada
International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) New York, USA
International Court of Justice (ICJ) The Hague, The Netherlands
International Development Association (IDA) Washington, USA [World Bank Group]
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFDA) Rome, Italy
International Labour Organization (ILO)-Geneva, Switzerland
International Maritime Organization (IMO) -London, UK
International Monetary Fund (IMF)- Washington, USA
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW)- Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)-Geneva, Switzerland,
International Trade Center (ITC)- Geneva, Switzerland, [UNCTAD/WTO]
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) - Geneva, Switzerland
Media and Peace Institute (University for peace)- Paris, France
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - New York, USA
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)-Geneva, Switzerland
United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP)- Vienna, Austria
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)- New York, USA
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) York
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-Paris, France
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)- Nairobi, Kenya
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, (OHCHR)-Geneva, Switzerland
United Nations High commissioner for Refugees, Office of the (UNHCR) -Geneva, Switzerland
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) -Vienna, Austria
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) -New York, USA
United Nations University (UNU)-Tokyo, Japan
United Nations Volunteers (UNV)-Bonn, Germany
United Postal Union (UPU) - Bern, Switzerland
Women Watch - New York, USA
World Bank Group - Washington, USA
World Food Programme (WFP) - Rome , Italy
World Health Organization (WHO) - Geneva, Switzerland
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)- Geneva, Switzerland
World Meteorological Organnization (WMO)- Geneva, Switzerland
World tourism Organization - Madird, Spain
World Trade Organization (WTO) Geneva, Switzerland,
The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was first raised in November 1980. AFTER consultations, the Foreign Secretaries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981. This was followed a few months later by a meeting of the Committee of the Whole, which identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. The Foreign Minister, at their first meeting in New Delhi in August 1983, adopted the Declaration on South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and formally launched the Integrated Program of Action (IPA) in the five agreed areas of cooperation: agriculture rural development; telecommunications; meteorology , and health and population activities. Later, transport; postal services, scientific and technological cooperation; sports arts, and culture were added t the IPA.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
The SAARC seeks to promote he welfare of the peoples of South Asia, strengthen collective self-reliance, promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in various fields, and cooperate with international and regional organizations.
The Committee provides overall monitoring and coordination determines priorities, mobilizes resources, and approves projects and financing. It may meet as often as deemed necessary but in practice normally meets twice a year and submits its reports to the Council of Ministers.
The Standing Committee may also set up Action Committees comprising. Member states concerned with implementation of projects per Articles VII of the Charter. The Standing Committee is assisted by a Programming Committee, an ad hoc body, comprising senior officials, to scrutinize the Secretariat Budget, finalize the Calendar of Activities, and take up any other assigned to it by the Standing Committee.]
The Programming Committee also has been entrusted to consider the reports of the Technical Committee and the SAARC Regional Centers and submit its comments to the Standing Committee.
Secretariat : The Secretary - General, who is appointed by the Council of Ministers for a two - year term and is rotated among Member States, six Directors, and a General Service Staff , holds this position constitute the foundation for a strong viable community of nations in southeast Asia.
The association of South Asian Nations or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by the five original Member Countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined on 8 January 1984, Vietnam on 28 July 1995, Laos and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999. At present India a dialogue partner.
The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the Association are :
(i) To Accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asia nations, and
(ii) To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
The highest decision - making organ of ASEA is the Meeting of the ASEA Heads of State and Government. The ASEAN Summit is convened every year. The ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (Foreign Ministers) is held on an annual basis. Ministerial meetings on several other sectors are also held : agriculture and forestry, economics, energy, environment, finance, information, investment, labour, law, rural development and poverty alleviation, science and technology, social welfare, transnational crime, transportation, tourism, youth, the AIA Council and, the AFTA council. The Secretary - General of ASEAN is appointed on merit and accorded ministerial status.
The Secretary - General of ASEAN, who has a five - year term, is mandated to initiate, advise, coordinate, and implement ASEAN activities. The members of the professional a staff of the ASEAN Secretariat are appointed on the principle of open recruitment and region - wide competition. ASEAN has several governmental cooperation in various fields.
The ASEAN political and security dialogue and cooperation is aimed to promote regional peace and stability by enhancing regional resilience. Regional resilience shall be achieved by cooperating in all fields based on the principles of self - confidence, self - reliance, mutual respect, cooperation, and solidarity, which shall constitute the foundation for a strong and viable community of nations in Southeast Asia. Through political dialogue and confidence building, no tension has escalated into armed confrontation among ASEAN members since its establishment more than three decades ago.
When ASEAN was established, trade among the member countries was insignificant. Estimates between 1967 and the early 1970s. Showed that the share of intra - ASEAN trade from the total trade of the member counties was the preferential trading Arrangement of 1977, which accorded tariff preferences for trade among ASEAN economies. Ten years later, an enhanced PTA programme was adopted at the Third ASEAN Summit in Manila further increasing intra - ASEAN trade. In addition to trade and investment liberalization, regional economic integration is being pursued through the development of Trans - ASEAN transportation network consisting of major inter - state highway and railway networks, principles ports and sea lanes for maritime traffic, inland waterway transport, and major civil aviation links. ASEAN economic cooperation covers the following areas: trade, investment, industry, services, finance, agriculture, forestry, energy transportation and communication, intellectual property, small and medium enterprises, and tourism.
The ASEAN Vision 2020 affirmed an outward - looking ASEAN playing a pivotal role in the international community and advancing ASEAN's common interests. The ASEAN summit of 1992 mandated the inclusion of ASEAN'S Dialogue partners include Australia, Canada, China the European Union, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, the Russia Federation, the United States of America and United Nations Development Programme. ASEAN maintains contact with other inter - governmental organizations, namely, the Economic Cooperation Organisation, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Rio Group, the South Asian Association for Regional cooperation, and the South Pacific Forum. Most ASEAN Member Countries also participate actively in the activities of the Asia - Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) the Asia - Europe Meeting (ASEM), the East Asia - Latin America Forum ( EALAF).
The Non - Aligned movement emerged in the 1960s during the cold war between USA and former Soviet union (1949 - 89) Although originally used by poorer states, the non aligned movement was enriched by members of oil producing countries. NAM consists of 113 members; hold more than half the world's population and 85 of oil resources, but only 7 of global GDP (1995). Non - alignment is not a doctrine. It is not a dogma. It is a process. It is a way of looking at issues in a particular way. It is a need, not a creed. It is against hegemony, against formation of blocs by the powerful nations.
During the Cold War, between the former USSR and Eastern Europe on the one hand and the USA and Western Europe on the other, the world divided into two power blocs. However, during the 1960s a third bloc, the nonaligned movement emerged. It includes countries that had gained independence from the European empires in the period after World War II. The NAM tried to act as a stabilizing force between the two - superpower blocs. It provided its members a more powerful voice through unity. The origins of the movement lay in the 1955 Bandung Conference, Indonesia, at which Asian and African States met to find common ground and agreement for future co - operation, and proclaimed anti colonialism and neutrality between East and West power blocs. The Indian Primer Minster Jawaharlal Nehru. Ghana's Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah, Egypt's Preseident Gamal Abdel Nasser, Indionesia's President Ahmed Sukarno, and Yugoslavia's President Tito founded the movement at the Belgrade Conference, Yugoslavia, in 1961.
During the cold War, both the USA and USSR tried to influence members of the nonaligned movement and attract them into their respective blocs. Monetary aid was given to development projects, such as the Soviet funding of Egypt's Aswan High Dam project during the 1960s. The nonaligned movement was not a strongly unified group like the north Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or Warsaw Pact. Members of NAM were weaker economically and militarily than the superpower blocs. Therefore, although its members were able to increase their status through unity and cooperative voting in the UN General Assembly, they were never able to challenge the dominance of the two superpowers. After the cold war membership of the nonaligned movement grew from 25 states in 1961 to 113 members and 17 observer states in 2000. The movement's members are drawn from Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East, Malta. Yugoslavia is the only European members of the nonaligned movement. Conferences are held every three years. The movement has no permanent secretariat. With the end of the cold war, the major issue promoted by the movement have been international action against poverty, environmental destruction, nuclear testing, and drug trafficking.
The Cold war had ended but peace in the world is still threatened by forces of extremism, discord, aggressive nationalism, and terrorism and large stocks of weapons of mass destruction. Besides the dynamics of globalisation have produced a whole set of new problems which the Non - aligned Movement must address in coming years. Therefore, NAM is relevant in the contemporary international world political and economic order.
While the developing world is largely supportive of mutually beneficial global integration, it has major concerns that are not being addressed in the (new) global agenda.
These are equitable balance between rights and obligations of investors, particularly multi - national corporations (MNC's), extra - territorial application of domestic laws, intrusive and calculated invoking of human rights, and conditionality of environmental protection and preservation and opening up of national economies tied to grant of aid and trade concessions. Non - aligned countries are increasingly exposed to pressures to conform to an agenda that is being defined and driven by others particularly the G - 8 nations. NAM relevance lies in providing the ideal forum to oppose,
1. Disregarding the U.N. and diluting the authority of the Security Council by ignoring or simply by passing it.
2. To curtail the hegemonic tendencies on the part of 'rogue states', and
3. To slow down economic and social development of Third World nations.
India should take the lead and revitalize NAM, give it direction, coherence, and efficiency. To accelerate the process of revitalization, NAM should devote 'more time and effort to promote cooperation among member - countries both in the economic and political fields.' There is 'renewed interest' among developing Countries in NAM. The fact that we are living in a unipolar world and the increasing unilateralism being shown by certain countries in world affairs should make NAM countries more united. There have been attempts by a group of countries to portray NAM as irrelevant and outdated. NAM is now even more relevant in the context of new international political order.
The main characteristic of the world order of the mid - late 2000's is as follows :
Liberalism or democratic capitalism has triumphed over socialism and is being incorporated into Easter Europe. The Western, particularly American values and attitudes of materialism, consumption and self gratification in an urban, industrial, high technological context are being rapidly spread by American media and MNC's.
The dominant goals are those of the G-7 powers and their financial institutions and emphasis global capitalism, democracy, rule of Euro - global capitalism, democracy, rule of Euro - North American international law, growing global trade,
peaceful conflict resolution, and inequality in wealth, power and status between the G7 and other states.
The bipolar system has been replaced by an unipolar oligarchy of the G7, led on most dimensions by US, along with some increase in power of non-state actors (IMF) and declining power generally of the Third World.
1. Security: The USA has become the single military superpower by capability and leadership.
2. Culture: American Culture is dominant and rapidly spreading through out the globe.
3. Economy: here an oligarchy of shared power among the US, Germany and Japan exists.
4. Political / DIPLOMATIC: the global influence of major LDC's (Least Developed Countries) has decreased, although there is increased latitude for regional influence of some Third World powers.
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