Torque developed by the stepper motor and stepping rate characteristics for both modes of operation are shown in fig.2.36.the curve ABC represents the "pull in" characteristics and the curve ADE represents the "pull-out" characteristics.
The area OABCO represents the region for start stop mode of operation. At any operating point in the region the motor can start and stop without losing synchronism. The area ABCEDA refers to the region for slewing mode of operation. At any operating point without losing synchronism to attain an operating point in the slewing mode at first the motor is to operate at a point in the start-stop mode and then stepping rate is increased to operate in slewing mode, similarly while switching off it is essential to operate the motor from slewing mode to start-stop mode before it is stopped.
Pull in torque
It is the maximum torque developed by the stepper motor for a given stepping rate in the start-stop mode of operation without losing synchronism. In the fig.2.36 LM represents the pull in torque (i.e)TPI corresponding to the stepping rate F (i.e.) OL.
Pull out torque
It is the maximum torque developed by the stepper motor for a given stepping rate in the slewing mode without losing synchronism. In fig.2.36 LN represents the pull in torque (i.e.) TPO corresponding to F (i.e.) OL.
Pull in range
It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor can operate in start-stop mode developing a specific torque (without losing synchronism).In fig. 2.36 PIT represents pull in range for a torque of T (i.e.) OP. This range is also known as response range of stepping rate for the given torque T.
Pull out range
It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor can operate in slewing mode developing a specified torque without losing synchronism. In fig.2.36 PIPO represents the pull out range for a torque of T. The range PIPO is known slewing range.
Pull in rate (FPI)
It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor will start or stop without losing synchronism against a given load torque T.
Pull out rate (FPO)
It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor will slew, without missing steps, against load torque T.
This term means one to one correspondence between the number of pulses applied to the stepper motor and the number of steps through which the motor has actually moved.
Mid frequency resonance
The phenomenon at which the motor torque drops to a low value at certain input pulse frequencies.