![if !IE]> <![endif]>
THE ORGIN OF LOCAL SELF - GOVERNMENT :
The local self government under the British government in India began in a modest way and the scope of it was limited. The purpose at that time were to foster trade and to remove certain problems and difficulties. The first municipal law enacted in 1842 was known as 'The Bengal People Act, 1842'. It was applicable to the province of Bengal as a trial measure. The performance of the local bodies under this act was not considered successful. It was replaced by the XXVI Act of 1850 as an all India measure. Since then several other acts were passed which led to the establishment of local bodies like the corporation of Calcutta, Bombay etc.
In order to make the local self - government broad based and improve its working Lord Mayo, Viceroy of India, issued an order in the form of a resolution of financial decentralization in 1870. The object of this resolution was to promote the working in education, public health, sanitation, medical relief and local works operations besides to afford opportunities for the development of self - government for strengthening municipal institutions. The second phase of the development of local self - government was reached in 1882, when Lord Ripon paid his personal attention to providing better opportunities of participation in the management of the public affairs.
The next stage in the growth of the local bodies was based on the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Decentralization in 1906. The Commission was of the opinion that the working of local bodies was a failure. It recommended among others the grant of more powers, genuine elections with majority of not only non - official elements but also the major strength of the elected representatives. Taking into consideration the unsatisfactory financial condition it recommended that within the sanctioned limits, local bodies should be allowed to determine their own taxes within the legal frame work of the constitution. In 1918 the Government of India accepted most of the proposals of the commission including electing majority in the local bodies with wider suffrage. From this time onwards and particularly from the Montague Chelmsford Report and the Government of India's Resolution of 1918. As soon as the country achieved independence in 1947 a new life was given and amending legislation was undertaken in all states of India in order to democratize the organization, functions and working of the local bodies. During the post independence period emphasize was on development in the field of rural government.
This was in accordance with the views of Gandhiji whose interest was mainly on the improvement of villages. It is significant to note that Gandhiji attributed all the evils of modern civilization to the twin processes of industrialization and urbanization. He though that the only effective antidote to them was the revival of self - sufficient villages which flourished in ancient times. Most of the leaders of free India who came to power at the centre and in the states were his ardent disciples and they though it was their duty to give effect to the ideas with which he inspired them. Much of the legislation on village Panchayati Raj from 1958 was the outcome of the enormous influence that Gandhiji's philosophy exercised on those who were at the helm of affairs in the years following 1947. It is not possible to give a detailed account of the evolution of the local bodies here and the readers are advised to consult books given in the bibliography.
Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.