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# Technical specification in Robotics

The robot's program instruct the robot to move to a specified point, it does not actually perform as per specified.

Technical specification in Robotics

Accuracy:

The robot's program instruct the robot to move to a specified point, it does not actually perform as per specified.

The accuracy measures such variance. That is, the distance between the specified position that a robot is trying to achieve (programming point), and the actual X, Y and Z resultant position of the robot end effector.

Repeatability:

The ability of a robot returns repeatedly to a given position. It is the ability of a robotic system or mechanism to repeat the same motion or achieve the same position. Repeatability is is a measure of the error or variability when repeatedly reaching for a single position. Repeatability is often smaller than accuracy.

Degree of Freedom (DOF):

Each joint or axis on the robot introduces a degree of freedom. Each DOF can be a slider, rotary, or other type of actuator. The number of DOF that a manipulator possesses thus is the number of independent ways in which a robot arm can move. Industrial robots typically have 5 or 6 degrees of freedom.

Three of the degrees of freedom allow positioning in 3D space (X, Y, Z), while the other 2 or 3 are used for orientation of the end effector (yaw, pitch and roll). 6 degrees of freedom are enough to allow the robot to reach all positions and orientations in 3D space. 5 DOF requires a restriction to 2D space, or else it limits orientations. 5 DOF robots are commonly used for handling tools such as arc welders.

Resolution:

The smallest increment of motion can be detected or controlled by the robotic control system. It is a function of encoder pulses per revolution and drive (e.g. reduction gear) ratio. And it is dependent on the distance between the tool center point and the joint axis.

Envelope:

A three-dimensional shape, that defines the boundaries that the robot manipulator can reach; also known as reach envelope.

Reach:

The maximum horizontal distance between the center of the robot base to the end of its wrist.

Maximum Speed:

A robot simultaneously moving with all joints in complimentary directions at full speed with full extension. The maximum speed is the theoretical values which does not consider under loading condition.