The phase shift circuits produce phase shifts that depend on the frequency and maintain a constant gain.

**Phase
Shift Circuits**

The
phase shift circuits produce phase shifts that depend on the frequency and
maintain a constant gain. These circuits are also called constant-delay filters
or all-pass filters. That constant delay refers to the fact the time difference
between input and output remains constant when frequency is changed over a
range of operating frequencies.

This
is called all-pass because normally a constant gain is maintained for all the
frequencies within the operating range. The two types of circuits, for lagging
phase angles and leading phase angles.

Phase
log circuit is constructed using an op-amp, connected in both inverting and non
inverting modes. To analyze the circuit operation, it is assumed that the input
voltage v1 drives a simple inverting amplifier with inverting input applied
at(-)terminal of op-amp and a non inverting amplifier with a low-pass filter.

It
is also assumed that inverting gain is -1 and non-inverting gain after the
low-pass circuit is

The
relationship is complex as defined above equation and it shows that it has both
magnitude and phase. Since the numerator and denominator are complex
conjugates, their magnitudes are identical and the overall phase angle equals
the angle of numerator less the angle of the denominator.

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