The Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) emerged in the wake of decolonization that followed World War II. At the Bandung (a city in Indonesia) conference (1955), the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa gave a call for abstaining from allying with any of the two Super Powers. It also pledged to fight all forms of colonialism and imperialism.
The NAM held its first conference at Belgrade in 1961 under the leadership of Tito (Yugoslavia), Nasser (Egypt), Nehru (India), Nkrumah (Ghana) and Sukarno (Indonesia). The basic principles of non-alignment, as listed in the statement issued at the Belgrade (a Serbian city, then part of Yugoslavia) Conference, were: peaceful co-existence, commitment to peace and security, no military alliance with any super power, no permission for any super power to build its military base in its territories. With the collapse of Soviet Union, the idea of non-alignment lost relevance.