V. Answer briefly
1. Write any three causes for the Chinese Revolution of 1911.
• The disintegration of the government of Manchu dynasty began with the death of the Dowager-Empressin 1908.
• The new emperor was two years old and the Provincial governors began to assert their independence.
• In October 1911 the local army mutinied and the revolt spread.
• Provincial governors removed the Manchu garrisons and proclaimed their independence.
2. Write a note on Mao’s Long March.
• By 1933 Mao had gained full control of the Chinese Communist party.
• In 1934, the Communist army of about 100,000 set out on the Long March. The march has become legendary.
• The marchers were continually harassed by Kuomintang forces, by local war lords and by unfriendly tribesmen. Of the 100,000 who set out, only 20,000 finally arrived in northern Sheni after crossing nearly 6,000 miles.
3. What do you know of Baghdad Pact?
• Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran signed a pact in 1955. This pact was known as "Baghdad Pact". '
• In 1958 the United States joined the organisation. Thereafter it came to be known as "The Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO)". This treaty was open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in the region. CENTO was dissolved in 1979.
4. What was Marshall Plan?
• The US conceived the Marshall Plan to bring the countries in the western Europe under its influence by helping them with US finance.
• Marshall plan sought to help the countries of Europe with American dollars to facilitate their early recovery from the destruction caused by the Second World War.
• Sixteen nations have been benefited by this scheme.
• These nations have received help to the tune of 13 billion dollars.
5. Write a note on Third World Countries.
• First World - The Capitalist countries led by the US.
Second World - The Communist countries led by the Soviet Union
Third World - The countries outside these First World and Second World.
6. How was the Cuban missile crisis defused?
• In April 1961 an army of Cuban exiles landed on the island of Bay of Pigs. The US bombed Cuban air fields with the objective of overthrowing Castro's regime. US warships surrounded Cuba.
• The Kennedy government received intelligence that the USSR was secretly installing nuclear missiles in Cuba. Finally, the Soviet President Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles and thus the missile crisis was defused.