Neural Control and Coordination
Choose the followings:
1. Which structure in the ear converts pressure waves to action potentials?
a. Tympanic membrane
b. Organ of Corti
c. Oval window
d. Semicircular canal
2. Which of the following pairings is correct?
a. Sensory nerve – afferent
b. Motor nerve - afferent
c. Sensory nerve – ventral
d. Motor nerve – dorsal
3. During synaptic transmission of nerve impulse, neurotransmitter (P) is released from synaptic vesicles by the action of ions (Q). Choose the correct P and Q.
a. P = Acetylcholine, Q = Ca++
b. P = Acetylcholine, Q = Na+
c. P = GABA, Q=Na+
d. P = Cholinesterase, Q = Ca++
4. Examine the diagram of the two cell types A and B given below and select the correct option.
a. Cell-A is the rod cell found evenly all over retina
b. Cell-A is the cone cell more concentrated in the fovea centralis
c. Cell-B is concerned with colour vision in bright light
d. Cell-A is sensitive to bright light intensities
5. Assertion: The imbalance in concentration of Na+, K+ and proteins generates action potential.
Reason: To maintain the unequal distribution of Na+ and K+, the neurons use electrical energy.
a. Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
b. Both Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is not the correct explanations of Assertion.
c. Assertion is true, but Reason is false.
d. Both Assertion and Reason are false.
6. Which part of the human brain is concerned with the regulation of body temperature?
c. Medulla oblongata
7. The respiratory centre is present in the
a. Medulla oblongata
8. Match the following human spinal nerves in column I with their respective number in column II and choose the correct option
column I : column II
P. Cervical nerves : i. 5 pairs
Q. Thoracic nerve : ii. 1 pair
R. Lumbar nerve : iii. 12 pair
S. Coccygeal nerve : iv. 8 pair
a. ( P-iv ),( Q-iii ),( R-i ),( S-ii )
b. ( P-iii ), ( Q-i ), ( R-ii ), ( S-iv )
c. ( P-iv ),( Q-i ),( R-ii ),( S-iii )
d. ( P-ii ), ( Q-iv ), ( R-i ), ( S-iii )
9. Which of the following cranial nerve controls the movement of eye ball ?
a. trochlear nerve
b. optic nerve
c. Olfactory nerve
d. vagus nerve.
10. The abundant intracellular cation is
11. Which of the following statements is wrong regarding conduction of nerve impulse?
a. In a resting neuron, the axonal membrane is more permeable to K+ ions and nearly impermeable to Na+ ions.
b. Fluid outside the axon has a high concentration of Na+ ions and low concentration of K+, in a resting neuron.
c. Ionic gradient s are maintained by Na+ K+ pumps across the resting membrane, which transport 3Na ions outwards for 2K+ into the cell.
d. A neuron is polarized only when the outer surface of the axonal membrane possess a negative a charge and its inner surface is positively charged.
12. All of the following are associated with the myeline sheath except
a. Faster conduction of nerve impulses
b. Nodes of Ranvier forming gaps along the axon
c. Increased energy output for nerve impulse conduction
d. Saltatory conduction of action potential
13. Several statements are given here in reference to cone cells which of the following option indicates all correct statements for cone cells ?
(i) Cone cells are less sensitive in bright light than Rod cells
(ii) They are responsible for colour vision
(iii) Erythropsin is a photo pigment which is sensitive to red colour light
(iv) They are present in fovea of retina
a. (iii), (ii) and (i)
b. (ii) , (iii) and (iv)
c. (i), (iii) and (iv)
d. (i), (ii) and (iv)
14. Which of the following statement concerning the somatic division of the peripheral neural system is incorrect?
a. Its pathways innervate skeletal muscles
b. Its pathways are usually voluntary
c. Some of its pathways are referred to as reflex arcs
d. Its pathways always involve four neurons
15. When the potential across the axon membrane is more negative than the normal resting potential, the neuron is said to be in a state of
16. Why is the blind spot called so?
17. Sam’s optometrist tells him that his intraocular pressure is high. What is this condition called and which fluid does it involve?
18. Why are we getting running nose while crying?
19. The action potential occurs in response to a threshold stimulus; but not at sub threshold stimuli. What is the name of the principle involved?
20. Pleasant smell of food urged Ravi to rush into the kitchen. Name the parts of the brain involved in the identification of food and emotional responses to odour.
21. Cornea transplant in humans is almost never rejected. State the reason.
22. At the end of repolarization, the nerve membrane gets hyperpolarized. Why?
23. Label the parts of the neuron.
24. The choroid plexus secretes cerebrospinal fluid. List the function of it.
25. What is the ANS controlling centre? Name the parts that are supplied by the ANS.
26. Why the limbic system is called the emotional brain? Name the parts of it.
27. Classify receptors based on type of stimuli.
28. Name the first five cranial nerves, their nature and their functions.
29. The sense of taste is considered to be the most pleasurable of all senses.
Describe the structure of the receptor involved with a diagram.
30. Describe the structures of olfactory receptors?
Ampulla – The widened opening for each of the semicircular canals, containing sensory innervations.
Depolarization – The loss of electric potential difference between the inside and outside the nerve cell due to a change in permeability and migration of sodium ions to the interior.
Neurotransmitters – Also known as chemical messengers, are chemicals that transmit signals across a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.
Nissl’s granules – Endoplasmic reticulum with free ribosomes, found in the cytoplasm of neuronal cell body, but absent in the axon. These are the site of protein synthesis.
Nodes of Ranvier – Periodic gap in the insulating sheath (myelin) on the axon of certain neurons that serves to facilitate the rapid conduction of nerve impulses.
Properioception – The ability to sense stimuli arising within the body regarding position, motion and equilibrium.
Schwann cells – It is also called neurilemma cell, produce the myelin sheath around neuronal axons in the peripheralneural system. Schwann cells are named after German physiologist Theodor Schwann, who discovered them in the 19th century.
Septum pellucidum – Located in the midline of the brain, between the two cerebral hemispheres. It separates the lateral ventricles I and II.
Threshold stimulus – The minimum stimulus needed to achieve an action potential.