In terms of geographical spread there are four types of parties. They are national parties, regional parties, trans-regional parties and local parties. Since the second general elections to LOKSABHA in 1957, Election Commission of India has recognised several parties as national parties, on the formula that they should have secured not less than 4% of total valid votes in the previous general election, atleast in four states.
Examples of national parties are,
Bharatiya Janatha Party,
Communist party of India (CPI) and
Communist party of India (CPM)
The emergence of regional parties in India has a geo-political rationale. Under conditions of democratic culture there are socio economic and ethnic diversities, which are specific to different regions in India.
Examples are Assam, Nagaland, Mizorm, Punjab, Orissa, Andhrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Each of these regions with a regional outfit seeks and aspires for political autonomy. These outfits press for he development of their region in a federation like India.
There have been three types of regional parties in India. Among them the first type is that of groups formed by congress dissidents. They were all short lived and often served a temporary purpose or cause. This gave the group strength for bargaining.
Eg. Bangla Congress, Kerala Congress, the Utkal congress and Telangana Praja Committee.
Are tribal parties as focal points of building a tribal political identity and as a platform for obtaining more concessions from the center. They had often talked even of concessions from the center. They had often talked even of session from India, and demanded complete independence.
Examples of this trend are militant movements like the Naga National Council, Misoram National Front, Garo National council, Manipur National People Party etc..
Are larger political formations in ethnically, culturally and linguistically defined regions like Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir and Assam.
These parties are bigger in their composition, well knit in their organization and more stable in their role as important components of the multi-party system in India. Because of their electoral majority they have capacity to send their members to Lokshabha and Rajya sabha and play critical role as a balancing factor between ruling party and major opposition parties in parliament. Examples of their types are :
DMK, AIADMK, ASSAM GANA PARISHAD.
Generally people are divided into groups on the basis of area, profession, caste, community, religion and race. Sometimes they are divided on the basis of colour of the skin.
In India people belong to various groups. Caste is one such group. This kind of division of the people is found mostly in India only. There are several caste groups through out India. The main reason for this is to be found in the varnarshra dharma of the Hindu religion.
Generally major political parties do not support caste groups. However in indicate plays a dominant role in politics and also in elections to representative bodies. Case is an uniting factor.
People belonging to every group support the party leaders and candidates belonging to their caste. The need for caste party is to secure certain benefits and advantages from the government to people of their caste.
In Tamilnadu also there are many caste parties, which exert influence on major political parties for getting the things they wanted. This is the sum total of a caste party.
A party political or otherwise formed on the basis of communal feelings and beliefs is known as a communal party. Like he caste party, communal party has its origins in he division of people or the society on grounds of caste distinctions.
The motive behind the formation of a communal party is to secure some benefits from the major communities and also from the government of the country. Communal parties are always selfish and partisan. They generally act against the interest of other groups and therefore not supported by parties, which do not have faith in race, religion and colour of the people. Communal parties should not be encouraged as they are against national spirit.