This is based on use of microprocessor to provide measurements of roundness quickly and in a simple way; there is no need of assessing out of roundness.

**Modern Roundness Measuring Instruments**

This is based on use of microprocessor to provide measurements of roundness quickly and in a simple way; there is no need of assessing out of roundness. Machine can do centering automatically and calculate roundness and concentricity, straightness and provide visual and digital displays. A computer is used to speed up calculations and provide the stand reference circle.

**(i) Least square circle**

The sum of the squares of a sufficient no. of equally spaced radial ordinates measured from the circle to the profile has minimum value. The center of such circle is referred to as the least square center. Out of roundness is defined as the radial distance of the maximum peak from the circle (P) plus the distance of the maximum valley from this circle.

**(ii) Minimum zone or Minimum radial separation circle**

These are two concentric circles. The value of the out of roundness is the radial distance between the two circles. The center of such a circle is termed as the minimum zone center. These circles can be found by using a template.

**(iii) Maximum inscribed circle**

This is the largest circle. Its center and radius can be found by trial and error by compare or by template or computer. Since V = 0 there is no valleys inside the circle.

**(iv)Minimum circumscribed circles**

This is the smallest circle. Its center and radius can be found by the previous method since P = 0 there is no peak outside the circle. The radial distance between the minimum circumscribing circle and the maximum inscribing circle is the measure of the error circularity. The fig shows the trace produced by a recording instrument.

This trace to draw concentric circles on the polar graph which pass through the maximum and minimum points in such way that the radial distance be minimum circumscribing circle containing the trace or the n inscribing circle which can fitted into the trace is minimum. The radial distance between the outer and inner circle is minimum is considered for determining the circularity error. Assessment of roundness can be done by templates. The out off roundness is defined as the radial distance of the maximum peak (P) from the least square circle plus the distance of the maximum valley (V) from the least square circle. All roundness analysis can be performed by harmonic and slope analysis.

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Mechanical : Metrology and Measurements : Thread Measurement : Modern Roundness Measuring Instruments |

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