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Chapter: Medical Electronics - Bio-Chemical and Non Electrical Parameter Measurement

Important Questions and Answers: Bio Chemical and Non Electrical Parameter Measurement

Medical Electronics - Bio-Chemical and Non Electrical Parameter Measurement - Important Questions and Answers: Bio Chemical and Non Electrical Parameter Measurement

BIO-CHEMICAL AND NON ELECTRICAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENT

 

 

1.Mention various types of chemical electrodes.

 

Hydrogen electrode, ph electrode,

 

po2 electrode, pco2 electrode.

 

2..Define circulation and respiration?

 

We can define from the engineering point of view, the circulation is a high resistance circuit with a large pressure gradient between the arteries and veins The exchange of any gases in any biological process is termed as respiration

 

3.What is mean by transducer?

 

It is a device which detects or senses the bio signal and converts it in to an electrical signal for bio signal processing

 

 

4 .What is electrophoresis?

 

Electrophoresis is a technique used to separate biological molecules, such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, based on their movement due to the influence of a direct electric current in a buffered solution. Positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode, while negatively charged molecules move toward the positive electrode.

 

5.What are the different methods to measure the blood pressure?

 

1.Indirect method using sphygmomanometer. 2.Direct method.

 

6.What is the use of blood flowmeter in bio medical instrumentation?

 

Blood flow meters are used to monitor the blood flow in various blood vessels and it also helps to measure cardiac output.

 

7. What are the different types of blood flow meters?

 

Electromagnetic blood flow meter,

Ultrasonic blood flow meter,

Laser Doppler

Blood flow meter,

NMR Blood flow meter.

 

8.Give some applications of electromagnetic blood flow meters.

 

Blood flow measurements during cardiac surgery, blood flow measurements during shunt operations, blood flow measurements during carotid artery, blood flow measurements in rural arteries, blood flow measurements during organ transplantation.

 

9. What is cardiac output?

 

Cardiac output is the quantity of blood delivered by the heart to the aorta per minutes. It is a major determinant of oxygen delivery to the tissues.

 

10.What happens when there is a fall in cardiac output?

 

A fall in cardiac output may result in low blood pressure, reduces tissues oxygenation, acidosis, poor renal function and shock.

 

 

11.What are the different types of dilution methods?

 

Indicator dilution method, Dye dilution method,  Thermal dilution method.

 

12.How Cardiac output is measured in thermal dilution method?

 

A thermal indicator of known volume introduced into either the right or left atrium will produce a resultant temperature change in the pulmonary artery or in the aorta respectively, the integral of which

 

is inversely proportional to the cardiac output.

 

Cardiac output=a constant X(blood temp-inject ate temp)/area under dilution curve.

 

13.What is the use of blood flow meter in bio medical instrumentation?

 

Blood flow meters are used to monitor the blood flow in various blood vessels and it also helps to measure cardiac output.

 

14.What are the two different principles used in ultrasonic blood flow measurement?

 

Transit Time method: In this method, a peizo electric crystal emits a brief pulse of ultrasound which propagates diagonally across the blood vessel.

 

Doppler effect based method: In this method , as per Doppler effect, there is a change in frequency of reflected ultrasonic wave, due to motion of blood , when it crosses blood.

 

15. Define transit time principle of ultrasonic blood flow meter.

 

In Transit time method a piezo electric crystal emits a brief pulse of ultrasound which propagates diagonally across the blood vessel.

 

The pulse reaches a receiving crystal situated on the opposite side wall of the blood vessel. Electronic circuitry attached externally interprets transit time to velocity.

 

16. What is Sphygmomanometer?

Sphygmomanometer is a dvice used by the physician to measure blood pressure.

 

It is used for indirect BP measurement and it consists of inflatable rubber bladder called the cuff, a rubber squeeze ball pump and value assembly and a manometer.

 

17.What is BSR?

 

BSR means based skin response, which gives the baseline value of skin resistance.

 

18.What is GSR?

 

GSR means galvanic skin response, which gives the measure of average activity of the sweat glands and is a measure of phasic activity of sweat glands.

 

19. What is plethysmograph?

 

Plethysmograph is used to measure the constant volume changes or constant pressure changes in the chamber.

 

20.What is korotkoff sound?

 

In the BP measurement, When the systolic pressure exceeds the cuff pressure, then the doctor can hear some crashing , snapping sound through the stethoscope. This is known as korotkoff sound.

 


PH Measurement - The chemical balance in the body can be determined by the ph value of blood and other body fluids.ph is defined as the hydrogen ion concentration of a fluid

 

po2 - po2 is defined as the partial pressure of oxygen respectively

 

Vitro Measurements - The blood sample is taken and the measurement for oxygen saturation is made in the laboratory.

Vivo Measurements - The oxygen saturation is determined while the blood is flowing in the circulatory system

 

pCO2 Measurement - pco2 is defined as the partial pressure of carbon dioxide respectively

 

Electrophoresis It  is defined as the movement of a solid phase with respect to a liquid.

 

Colorimeter - Measures the color concentration of a substance in a solution by detecting the color light intensity passing through a sample containing the substance and a reagent

 

Beer’s Law - If the path length or concentration increases, the transmittance decreases and absorbance increases

 

Autoanalyzer - An auto analyzer sequentially measures blood chemistry through a series of steps of mixing, reagent reaction and colorimetric measurements.

 

Dialyzer: separates interfacing substances from the sample by permitting selective passage of sample components through a semi permeable membrane


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